Libmonster ID: JP-1249

STUDYING MODERN JAPANESE CULTURE IN RUSSIA

E. L. KATASONOVA

Doctor of Historical Sciences

Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Keywords: Japan, mass culture, manga, anime, globalization

Cultural studies has always been the most popular and sought-after field of Russian Japanese studies. According to the established tradition laid down by our outstanding teachers, such as Academician N. I. Konrad, Doctor of Philology A. E. Gluskina, well-known expert on Japanese poetry and theater V. N. Markov, and others, who worked extensively and fruitfully in the field of classical literature and medieval theater, Soviet researchers, their students and followers continued to work in the field of classical literature and medieval theater. follow mainly this theme in your scientific work. And it is quite justified, because without knowledge of the basics of culture, especially such an ancient and original one as Japanese with its centuries-old traditions and a pronounced national flavor, it is impossible to understand the cultural life of modern Japan.

Modern Japanese culture as a subject of scientific research in the Soviet period attracted much less attention of specialists. Let us recall who of the Soviet Japanese cultural scientists dealt with the problems of modern Japanese culture? Only a few names come to mind. This is K. N. I. Y. Gens, who, by virtue of her profession as a film critic, has devoted her scientific activity to the study of modern Japanese cinema. Her unique calling card was a deep and very bold book for its time "Challenged. Japanese directors of the 60s-70s" (Moscow, 1988), almost the only deep fundamental scientific research in this area of Japanese culture to date.

WHAT WAS WRITTEN ABOUT MODERN JAPANESE CULTURE IN THE USSR

Much more books and publications were devoted to Japanese theater in those years, but mainly to its classical forms-Kabuki, No, Bunraku. Only the leading Soviet expert in the field of Japanese culture, Doctor of Historical Sciences L. D. Grisheleva, wrote about modern theatrical art. Her monograph " Theater of Modern Japan "(Moscow, 1977) gives a general picture of the theater world of modern Japan, tells about the formation and development of theater genres, their place in the cultural life of the country. Nevertheless, the researcher pays special attention to traditional national forms transferred to the modern stage.

L. D. Grisheleva began her academic career by defending her dissertation on democratic processes in the culture and art of post-war Japan. The subject matter is quite typical for that time and almost the only possible one for researchers who turned to modern cultural phenomena. "Culture of Post-war Japan "(Moscow, 1981) is the work of this author, written jointly with Doctor of Philology N. I. Chegodar, a well - known specialist in proletarian literature. This book also examines the main trends of the cultural process in the first decades after the end of the war, highlights the main stages of its development, and describes the ideological and aesthetic originality of each of them in connection with the movement of public life in Japan.

It was against the background, or rather exclusively in the context of the social movement and ideological struggle, that modern Japanese culture was considered and studied in those years. Therefore, a more detailed study of this work, which is quite professionally written and very informative, first of all, catches the eye of the emphasized caution in the characteristics of the phenomena described by the authors, strict adherence to the ideological attitudes of their time, and conscious avoidance of consideration of complex problems with social problems.-

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the history of cultural life in Japan. Only in the fertile sphere of classical culture could Soviet scientists feel the true freedom of creativity and the possibility of self-expression. This is evidenced by the remarkable work of L. D. Grisheleva " The formation of Japanese national culture "(Moscow, 1986), which does not lose its relevance even today.

If we add to the above list the book "Modern Engraving of Japan and its Masters"A. S. Kolomiets, who passed away early, then this is practically the end of our knowledge of modern Japanese culture at the Soviet stage of development of Russian Japanese studies.

NEW APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF MODERN JAPANESE CULTURE

Against this background, modern Russian Japanese scholars have literally taken a seven-mile step forward, turning to the study of modern Japanese culture in all its diversity, to a detailed and in-depth analysis of its complex and contradictory phenomena, which in Soviet times, for ideological reasons, could not be the object of research. If in the USSR the subject of scientific works in the field of Japanese culture was mainly limited to the classical heritage and the study of the creativity of representatives of proletarian and democratic trends in literature and art, now scientists have ample opportunities to reproduce an objective and comprehensive picture of the complex and diverse cultural process taking place in modern Japan.

The second distinguishing feature of modern research in the field of Japanese culture is the widest range of problems studied in terms of scientific coverage - from the semiotics of color to the peculiarities of Japanese cuisine, which previously could hardly be considered as the subject of fundamental scientific analysis. However, modern researchers not only prove the scientific validity of their research, but also determine the important role of these cultural components both for understanding Japanese national traditions and modern socio-cultural processes taking place in Japanese society. Moreover, it is characteristic that the study of Japanese culture takes place today at an interdisciplinary level using the tools of cultural studies, philosophy, sociology, political science, etc.

Unfortunately, young authors do not always manage to publish their research results in separate scientific monographs or publish them in prestigious scientific journals. Therefore, when getting acquainted with the names of young scientists engaged in modern Japanese culture and the main areas of their research, we have to focus primarily on the dissertations they defended.

Let's look at some of them. Let's start with A. S. Shimanskaya"Semiotics of Color in Japanese Culture", defended in 2014 at the Moscow State Linguistic University 1. In it, the author argues that until now the semiotics of color in Japanese culture has not been an independent subject of research in the field of theory and history of culture, and proves on the examples of traditional and modern cultural samples that color is an important component of the cultural consciousness and mentality of the Japanese and acts as one of the dominants of national culture.

No less original is L. V. Nikitina"Culture of modern Japanese food: traditions and innovations", defended in the specialty of cultural studies in 2008 at the Institute of Asian and African Countries at the Moscow State University named after M. Vlomonosov 2.

Special mention should be made of N. A. Konovalova's dissertation " Preservation and development of historical traditions in modern architecture of Japan (based on the material of World Exhibitions)", defended in 2006. In it, the author considers architecture as one of the components of culture, which is a catalyst for its sustainability and stability. The interrelation of traditional and new methods of urban planning creativity and architectural shaping, presented by Japan at the world exhibitions of 1958-2005, is traced in detail. 3

A.V. Zhukova presents a different perspective on the study of Japanese culture in her dissertation "Transformation of the musical and performing arts of Japan (late XIX-early XXI centuries) in the context of the dialogue of cultures" 4. This work was defended in 2011 at the Moscow State Pedagogical University.

STUDYING THE PHENOMENON OF JAPANESE MASS CULTURE

In the variety of topics of dissertation works devoted to modern Japanese culture, a set of issues related to the study of Japanese mass culture is particularly highlighted. This is a relatively new field in Russian Japanese studies and in the field of Japanese studies.

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russian cultural science in general. Its relevance was dictated by the radical socio-cultural changes that our country experienced in the post-perestroika period.

Let me remind you that in the West, by this time, Japanese mass culture had not only become extremely popular, especially among young people, but also became the subject of academic research in the largest scientific centers of the world, and in a number of countries its study was included in the curriculum of leading universities. In the USSR, however, this problem did not receive objective scientific coverage, since mass culture was categorically attributed in those years to the phenomena of the "decaying bourgeois West".

Nevertheless, referring to the articles of Dr. Kim Le Chun on modern mass literature in Japan, we can conditionally speak about the initial stage of studying Japanese mass culture in our country back in the 1980s. I am referring to such works of a well-known scientist as " Mass Literature of Japan in the light of the modern ideological struggle "(Moscow, 1982), "The Ideological Structure of "mass Literature" in Japan ("The Ruling Circles of Japan: the Mechanism of Domination") (Moscow, 1984), etc.

These articles, as well as many other scientific works on this subject written in the 1980s, are distinguished, first of all, by strict adherence to a pre-determined tradition of research, usually without the dynamics of the process and from the position of binary axiological opposition. Ideological attitudes here clearly dominate the content of articles, and this is quite understandable, given the peculiarities of the time when mass culture and its component - mass literature-were considered as an acenetic pseudo-culture. However, the author's professional observations, rich illustrative and cultural material presented in the articles, created the basis for further research in this area.

The starting point of a new post-Soviet stage in the study of Japanese mass culture can be considered the defense of Yu. O. Birichevskaya's PhD thesis "Kikuchi Kan's creativity and the problem of Japanese mass literature "Taishu Bungaku" in the first half of the XX century", which took place in 2001 at the Institute of Asian and African Countries at Moscow State University 5. Dealing essentially with the same problem as the aforementioned works of Kim Le Chun-Japanese mass literature-this study is in many ways different from them. It is a detailed scientific excursion into the history of Japanese literature and covers the period of formation of the foundations of mass culture in Japan. Although the work mainly concerns the literary process, the author emphasizes the inseparable connection between the concepts of mass literature and mass culture. The paper analyzes the term taishu bungaku and its existing interpretations, contains new assessments and approaches to the definition of this literary phenomenon, many of which can be extended to the field of mass culture.

However, this problem was later addressed by Yu. O. Birichevskaya, who in 2006 defended her doctoral dissertation on" The nature and social functions of mass culture " in the specialty of social philosophy at the Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University (St. Petersburg)6. Starting with the study of Japanese mass culture, the researcher came to an important generalizing stage of her research, making a significant scientific contribution to the theoretical understanding of the problems of mass culture in general, which is described in detail in her monograph " Axiology of Mass Culture. Comparative value-semantic analysis" (Saint Petersburg, 2015).

This was preceded by a large number of articles published by her on the problems of mass consciousness, national peculiarities of mass culture in different countries and their typological comparison, including the article "Mass Culture of Russia and Japan: a comparative value-semantic analysis", published in the Bulletin of Tomsk City Pedagogical University (2006, N 7). In this article, which deserves the attention of both Japanese scholars and cultural scientists, sociologists and specialists in other disciplines, the author traces and highlights both typologically universal features of modern civilization and specific features of the development of national cultures that are important for understanding the dynamics of modern societies in the context of globalization. The author argues that Japan and Russia, which have unique cultural traditions, experienced radical transformations in the XX century, including in the field of culture, the comparison of which allows the researcher to identify the commonality and national specifics of each of them.

At about the same time, M. N. Kornilov, Senior researcher at the Institute of Scientific Information in Social Sciences (INION) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, joined the study of Japanese mass culture, and for many years he was engaged in socio-cultural problems of modern Japan and the analysis of their theoretical understanding in the works of leading Japanese and Western researchers.

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2000 in the collection INION "Man: image and being"

(Moscow, 2000) his article "Heroes and genres of Japanese mass culture" is published, which in many ways became a milestone for a number of researchers. The article was written in the form of a review of works published abroad on the problems of modern Japanese mass culture. In particular, it analyzed in detail the book "Japanese Mirror: HeroesVillains of Japanese Culture" by the famous cultural critic Jan Burum and, in essence, outlined the main directions of research on this topic.

Shortly before this publication in 1999, the philologist and film critic B. A. Ivanov released a circulation of only 250 copies. the first Russian study "Introduction to Japanese Animation" about the origin and development of this art up to 1997, against the background of a detailed excursion into the history of Japanese culture. This book, which has become a landmark phenomenon in the history of the study of Japanese mass culture, was awarded the Guild of Film Critics and Screenwriters Award in 2000, was subsequently reprinted several times with corrections and additions, and is still a desktop guide not only for specialists, but also for all fans of modern Japanese pop culture.

FASHION FOR JAPAN, OR THE GLOBALIZATION OF JAPANESE MASS CULTURE

This new wave in the study of Japanese mass culture and its borderline problems was largely associated with a qualitatively different socio-cultural situation that had developed in our country at that time. Mass culture, having become the natural habitat of Russian citizens, transformed into "popular" and began to perform a number of important socio-cultural functions. This process is quite clearly seen in the example of such a phenomenon as the boom of Japanese pop culture that has engulfed our country in these years - the mass enthusiasm of young Russians for Japanese cuisine, comics-mata, animation-anime, street fashion, etc. A few years earlier, this boom had already swept through Western Europe, South Korea and China, and reached America.

Russian youth were in dire need of a new modern culture, since there was practically no such youth culture in our country, and the old Soviet-era models no longer met the spirit and needs of the time. That is why the cultural products offered by the Japanese proved to be in demand among the masses. They carried new interesting content and very unusual bright original forms, united young people by interests and were distributed using new technologies, such as computers, the Internet, etc., which were only then used by Russian citizens. All these new sociocultural phenomena were analyzed in detail in the dissertation work

A. A. Ipatova's "Fashion for Japan as a socio-cultural phenomenon of modern Russian society", which was defended in 2010 at the Faculty of Foreign Languages and Regional Studies of Moscow State University named after M. Vlomonosov.

For some time now, the promotion of this issue to the level of scientific research was subject to some resistance on the part of the scientific community, for which the study of manga, anime, Japanese youth subcultures, etc.did not fit into the traditional framework of academic analysis. And yet, even in a fairly conservative scientific community, there was soon a realization that nowadays an understanding of Japanese society and an adequate perception of Japan in the world is no longer possible without studying Japanese mass culture. On the other hand, a large army of fans of this culture, which literally appeared overnight in our country, eagerly followed the appearance in Russian popular magazines of new publications on the topic of interest to them, needing professional assessments.

There was a need for a publication that, first of all, would be designed for the mass reader, pursuing educational and educational goals. And at the same time, it should include a serious scientific analysis of new cultural phenomena for us, both from the point of view of the peculiarities of the development of modern Japanese society and its centuries-old artistic traditions, and from the point of view of the history of world civilization and modern globalization processes.

These tasks were set by the author of this article when starting work on the monograph " Japanese in the real and virtual worlds. Essays on Japanese Mass Culture "(Moscow, 2012)7. The very concept of mass culture is a complex, multi-factor phenomenon that reacts sharply to all kinds of social transformations with constantly changing boundaries and definitions, and therefore is not yet fully understood by modern science. At the same time, it was about the cultural experience of Japan, where for many centuries a complex and at the same time organic fusion of elite and popular art genres, traditional and borrowed, has developed.-

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mixed elements, historical and modern realities. The researcher had to understand from a professional point of view all this complex cultural diversity, including the problems of the globalization of Japanese culture and the modern cultural policy of Japan. These issues are covered in more detail in my articles on these issues, which by the time the book was published already exceeded thirty, including in the magazine "Asia and Africa Today" 8.

It is gratifying to note that the ranks of researchers of Japanese mass culture are constantly replenished, including at the expense of our colleagues working in Japan. We are talking about the articles of PhD Yu. D. Mikhailova, who has been dealing with a wide range of problems related to Russian-Japanese relations for almost 20 years, including such a complex and very interesting topic as mutual images and representations of Russia and Japan by means of visual culture. Her study of this topic led her to become familiar with Japanese political cartoons, and later aroused a great interest in modern manga and anime. To collect material on this new research topic, Yu. D. Mikhailova visited St. Petersburg in 2004, where she literally immersed herself in the world of local fans of Japanese pop culture - the so-called otaku, communicating closely with almost every one of them. The result of this unusual experiment was interesting statistics and other largely confidential information obtained "first-hand". This became the basis for the article "Anime and Manga in modern Russia", published in the collection Japan and Russia. Three Centures of Mutual Images в 2008 г. in the UK. In our country, this work of Yu. D. Mikhailova, translated into Russian, was first available on the Internet only in 2012 after its presentation by the author at the annual conference on the history and culture of Japan, held at RSUH 9.

And this example touches on a very sensitive problem for our Japanese studies: many of the works of our colleagues working abroad often remain inaccessible to the Russian reader. Unfortunately, a similar situation is developing today among young scientists, whose scientific success we learn mainly through their participation in conferences and competitions. At the same time, it should be recognized that the topic of Japanese mass culture in recent years is quite diverse in their dissertation research.

JAPANESE MASS CULTURE: NEW ASPECTS OF LEARNING

Consider, for example, O. A. Stepanova"The Japanese family in the Context of the Transformation of Japanese mass Culture at the beginning of the XXI century", defended at the Moscow Pedagogical University for the Humanities in 2008.10 This event was preceded by several notable publications, including the article " On Japanese Mass Culture at the beginning of the XXI century . in comparison with Western culture", published in the Ethnographic Review Online in May 2007.11

No less interesting in terms of the problem statement and its practical use is the dissertation work of E. S. Avdeeva"The use of comics in teaching Japanese to second-year students of a language university", which was defended in 2009 at the Institute of Content and Teaching Methods of the Russian Academy of Education12. Interest in this problem, according to the author of the work, was dictated by the increased interest of young people and students in Japanese pop culture, as well as the increasing spread of visual teaching methods, among which manga is now one of the leading places. The work is of great interest, first of all, because it not only presents a linguoculturological analysis of Japanese manga comics, but also develops and describes the technology of teaching Japanese based on manga texts, as well as the results of its experimental verification.

It should be noted in passing that the linguoculturological direction is now widely represented in Russian Japanese studies by the names of such authoritative scientists as corresponding members. RAS V. M. Alpatov" Japan: language and society "(2nd ed. Moscow, 2003); " Japan. Language and Culture" (Moscow, 2008), D. kult. T. M. Gurevich"Japanese language and Japanese people" (Moscow, 2003); "Man in the Japanese linguistic and cultural space" (Moscow, 2005), etc.

Returning to the problems of studying modern mass Japanese culture, it should be recognized that by now there is a need for a deeper understanding of this phenomenon using the scientific tools of certain scientific disciplines, such as, in particular, the field of philosophical sciences. At least, it can be stated with certainty that in recent years there has been a greater interest in studying the philosophical component of Japanese mass culture. In this regard, we should mention the works of L. B. Karelova, Doctor of Philology, and S. V. Chugrov, Doctor of Sociology, dealing with the problems of globalization of Japanese culture

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("Globalization of Culture: Japanese Interpretations and sociocultural forecasts".

Moscow, Voprosy filosofii Publ., 2009, No. 7).

The same group of researchers includes a young scientist P. A. Moshnyaga, who successfully defended his PhD thesis on "Features of the globalization of Japanese Culture (philosophical analysis)" in 2009 at the Russian State University for the Humanities, majoring in religious studies, philosophical anthropology, and philosophy of culture 13. Following the example of his famous predecessor O. Y. Birichevskaya, who gradually moved from philological studies to the field of philosophical research, Moshnyaga also began his scientific career by studying Japanese mass literature of the 1920s-1930s, in order to further approach philosophical generalizations of cultural processes taking place in modern Japan.

IT IS IMPORTANT TO DISTINGUISH GRAIN FROM CHAFF

It is significant that today the study of Japan and Japanese culture is no longer a kind of "monopoly" of professional Japanese scholars, as it was in previous years. It is enough to name the topics of dissertations on modern Japanese culture that have been defended over the past 10-15 years to understand what a wide range of scientists of different specialties and different educational and research institutions in the country are involved in the study of this problem today.

These are PhD theses: "The theme of death in Japanese Mass Culture", defended by A. Y. Munipov in 2002 at the State Institute of Art Studies of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation 14"Formation of the semiotic system of American Comics and Japanese Manga", defended by K. V. Polyakova at the A. I. Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University (St. Petersburg, 200415; "Media communication features of Japanese manga comics", defended by D. M. Prokhanov at the Faculty of Journalism of Moscow State University in 201416; "Problems of manga and anime development in the art culture of Japan in the second half of the XX-beginning of the XXI century", defended by V. Yu. Leonov in 2015 on the basis of the Moscow State University of Art and Industry. S. G. Stroganova 17, etc.

At the same time, the ranks of Japanese cultural scientists have significantly expanded over the past 20 years due to graduates of higher education institutions, where teaching the Japanese language and, accordingly, the entire range of disciplines related to this country, including literature and culture, as well as conducting scientific research on this topic, have been introduced into the curriculum. And the number of such institutions has increased dramatically, and their geography has expanded to include not only, as before, the central and Far Eastern regions of our country, but also Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Ulan-Ude, Voronezh, Samara, Saratov, etc. Even taking into account only Moscow, I am afraid to make a mistake in determining the number of such educational institutions. One of the reasons for the sharply increased interest in Japanese studies is the fascination of Russian youth with modern pop culture, which stimulated the natural desire for in - depth knowledge of this country.

At the same time, new centers for Japanese studies are emerging, not only in research institutes, but also in many educational institutions, as exemplified by the Russian-Japanese Center for Media and Culture Studies, which was opened with the assistance of the Embassy of Japan in the Russian Federation and has been successfully operating since 2001 at the Faculty of Journalism of Moscow State University. The Center carries out extensive scientific, popularizing and educational activities related to the training of students, as well as promotes the dissemination of knowledge about Japan, organizes meetings with famous Russian Japanese scholars, etc. The main scientific orientation of this center is primarily Japanese media culture - a new and very broad field in Russian Japanese studies, as well as various areas of modern Japanese mass culture, which closely interacts with modern media.

This new area of Japanese studies, which was poorly represented in the Soviet scientific field, is now being successfully developed by a whole group of scientists led by Ph. D. Candidate M. V. Seferova (Blinova), who defended her PhD thesis on "Advertising in the Japanese press: from national traditions to globalization"18. Among her published works, one should mention the following books: "Modern press of Japan "(Moscow, 2000); "Japanese Journalism in the XX century" (Moscow, 2001); "Mass media in Japan: media Business, traditions, Culture" (Moscow, 2008), etc., which can equally be used both in the educational process and for research purposes.

Paradoxical phenomenon: together with the emergence and active promotion of such new areas of Japanese studies as media culture, linguoculturology, etc., from the field of attention of modern Japanese scholars

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traditional topics related to modern Japanese theater, cinema, fine arts, etc. have almost completely disappeared. Only in recent years have articles about modern Japanese cinema again appeared in Russian scientific publications in the context of studying modern Japanese mass culture. However, for the most part, the development of these cultural areas has now passed to theater and film critics, and most often to journalists covering cultural events in connection with one or another informational occasion: whether it is a tour of Japanese bands, film festivals or world premieres.

And this is not surprising, because even in Soviet times, a whole galaxy of international journalists, including many Japanese scholars by education, made a great contribution to the study of Japan and Japanese culture. It is enough to recall the books of V. Ovchinnikov, V. Tsvetov, B. Chekhonin, V. Dunaev and others, which were used to educate several generations of specialists in Japan. Today we will not name so many big names of media representatives working in the Japanese direction. But, nevertheless, it would be unfair not to mention in this connection the talented representative of this profession, A. E. Kulanov, who, being a journalist by his basic education, moved to the ranks of professional Japanese studies, starting with the study of image studies and cross-cultural contacts, and then directing his scientific interest towards the history of Russian-Japanese relations. The books he created about Japan: "The secret. Conversations about Russia. Conversations about Japan "(Moscow, 2003); " Naked Japan "(Moscow, 2008); " The Reverse side of Japan. XXI century" (Moscow). 2011) and others, which have already been reprinted several times in our country and are intended for the general reader, contain a lot of interesting and little-known information about Japan and the Japanese, their way of life, customs and culture, both traditional and modern.

However, unfortunately, we have to state that among all the journalistic works about Japan published in the post-perestroika period, probably only this author and these books can be positively evaluated, since along with the appearance of a large number of commercial publishing houses in our country, almost every second person who happened to visit Japan and its culture began to write about it in this country and immediately considered himself a great connoisseur of it. As in everything else, we must separate the wheat from the chaff. The same principle should probably be extended to academic science, which is also sometimes profane.

The Russian and Soviet School of Japanese Studies and its cultural direction have always enjoyed a good reputation and high appreciation in scientific and public circles, both inside and outside our country. Unfortunately, today we know less about the work of our colleagues who work in the same field as us, but are geographically distant. This is the problem I encountered while preparing this review. Therefore, I take this opportunity to apologize in advance to those Japanese cultural scientists whose names and works are not mentioned by me. I think that in this regard, our Association of Japanese Studies has an important task to become a single information center for Russian Japanese studies in the main areas of scientific research, be it literature, culture, history, etc.


1 www.linguanet.ru/science/diccD/

2 serv.iaas msu.ru/vak/nikitina

3 www.dslib.net

4 www.dissercat.com

5 Ibid.

6 www.dissert.com

7 Book review in the magazine "Asia and Africa today": Rusakov E. M. Mirror of the Japanese soul: sakura branch or comics-manga? 2013, N 9. (Rusakov E.M. Zerkalo yaponskoi dushi: vetka sakury ili kormksy-manga? 2013, N 9) (in Russian)

8 See subr. Katasonova E. L. articles in the magazine "Asia and Africa today": Mass culture-Japanese reading, 2007, N 7, 8; In search of self-expression-Japanese youth in the world of mass culture, 2008, N 11; Japanese "cultural globalization" or "glocalization"? 2008, No. 9; Japan: Aesthetic Metamorphoses, 2009, No. 6, 7; Otaku: pros and cons. New generation of people of the computer age, 2010, N 12 and 2011, N 1; Japan and problems of cyberculture, 2010, N 2. (Sm. podr. statii Katasonovoiy E. L. v zhurnale "Aziya i Africa segodnya": Massovaya kultura - yaponskoe prochtenie, 2007, N 7, 8; V poiskakh samovyrazheniya - yaponskaya molodezh v mire mass-kultury, 2008, N 1; Yaponskaya "kulturnaya globalizatsiya" ili "glokalizatsiya"?, 2008, N 9; Yaponiya: esteticheskie metamorfozy, 2009, N 6, 7; Otaku: za i protiv. Novaya generatsiya lyudeiy kompyuternoiy epokhi, 2010, N 12 i 2011, N 1; Yaponiya i problemy kiberkultury, 2010, N 2) (in Russian)

9 mangalectory.ru/articles/ml 68

10 www.dissercat.com

11 Journal lea.ra/ru/2007/EO2007_3a

12 www.dissercat.com

13 www.mosgu.ru

14 www.dissercat.com

15 Ibid.

16 www.joum.msu,ru/downloads/2013/autoref

17 www.dslib.net

18 http://istina.msu,ru/dissertations/3687063/


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