Libmonster ID: JP-1279
Author(s) of the publication: D. V. STRELTSOV
Educational Institution \ Organization: MGIMO (U) of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs

KeywordsJapan, energy savingFukushima-nuclear power plant accident, Cool Biz

After the" triple disaster "of March 11, 2011 - the most powerful earthquake in the country's history, a devastating tsunami and a man-made disaster at the Fukushima - 1 nuclear power plant-Japan found itself in a situation of severe energy crisis. The decommissioning of most nuclear power plants as a result of the accident put on the agenda the question of what can replace nuclear power, which provides about 30% of the country's total electricity production.

Under these circumstances, Japan is striving to significantly limit its energy needs, focusing on those areas where the reserves of energy saving are greatest - industrial production, transport, office and household sectors.

How effective are these efforts?

RIGHT AFTER THE ACCIDENT

The first thing that was done after the accident at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant was the introduction of an administrative austerity regime for the largest electricity consumers (with a power consumption of more than 500 kW).

In relation to such energy users located in the area of responsibility of the Tokyo Electric Power Company TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company) and Tohoku (Tohoku denreku), the Government of Japan, based on Article 27 of the law on activities in the electric power sector, issued an order on restrictions on electricity consumption on July 1, 2011. These companies were required to reduce energy consumption by 15% compared to the same period last year in the TEPCO zone from July 1 to September 22, 2011 and in the Tohoku Denreku zone - from July 1 to September 9. Restrictions were set on the power consumption of large companies, which are valid on working days from 9 to 20 hours. Deliberate violation of this order resulted in penalties of up to 1 million rubles. yen (approximately $12.9 thousand).

For other consumers of electricity (corporations with a lower level of energy consumption and private households), the Government limited itself to calling for strict energy savings. It should be noted that this was the first time that the Government applied administrative restrictions on energy consumption since 1974, when Japan also faced an acute energy problem due to the sharp rise in oil prices. 1

The corporate sector responded readily to the authorities ' appeal. 80% of the members of the Federation of Economic Organizations of Japan (Nippon Keidanrei) made a voluntary commitment to contribute fully to the campaign and to reduce energy consumption, even if they were not among the major consumers.2 One of the largest Dencu advertising corporations issued a declaration in which it stated its intention to actively participate in advertising and promotion of this campaign and convince its business partners of the need to achieve their goals.3 At the same time, a number of companies even made counter-commitments, stating their desire to reduce energy consumption by 25%.

A GOOD TRADITION

The Japanese government's policy of energy conservation was also reflected in the fact that in the summer of 2011, the country's authorities launched a campaign to promote energy-saving behavior during the hot months of the year. This campaign was based on a tradition that emerged more than 5 years earlier.

In the spring of 2005, the then Minister of Ecology of Japan Yu. Koike has initiated a large-scale campaign to reduce harmful emissions and save energy in the office (commercial) sector, which is the largest consumer of electricity. In accordance with the minister's proposals, in the hottest and wettest months of the year - from June to the end of September - employees of Japanese companies should come to work without a tie and in light uniforms, and the temperature of air-conditioned air in office visits is set at at least 28 degrees. The campaign was named-

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nie Cool Biz ("Cool business"). The initiative was supported by the Head of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Moldova. Koizumi, who began appearing in front of reporters in a deliberately loose-fitting uniform.

The simplified dress code proposed by the Japanese government required employees not only to dress for work without a jacket and tie, but also to wear loose-fitting clothing made of materials that allow air and moisture to pass through, use short sleeves more actively, starch their collars to a standing position, or wear special shirts with a high (0.5-1 cm higher than usual) a collar, which, according to the initiators of the campaign, would compensate for the rejection of a tie, giving the employee a more formal look. In the future, the provisions of the clothing code were developed. For example, during the Cool Biz campaign in 2009, Prime Minister Taro Aso suggested that cabinet members hold a government meeting in loose, colorful Hawaiian shirts, which for six months actually become the uniform of employees in the hottest Okinawa.

However, despite the high personal popularity of the head of government, in the first years the campaign did not enjoy much success among the majority of Japanese people. Many employees preferred to come to work with their jacket draped over their arm and a tie" just in case " in their pocket. The adoption of the new rules was also hindered by a long tradition of business etiquette, in which men in Japan must always wear undershirts under their shirts, which automatically made it impossible to use a "Hawaiian" with short sleeves. In addition, most employees felt extremely uncomfortable, especially in negotiations, with colleagues who adhered to the traditional style of clothing.

Nevertheless, the results of the campaign were already evident in the first year of its implementation. In the autumn of 2005, it was estimated that the establishment of a higher-than-usual temperature regime in the working premises allowed to reduce emissions of harmful substances in the amount of 460 thousand tons.4 Encouraged by the results, the Ministry of Ecology proposed to fix the 28-degree norm for the future as one of the permanent methods of combating global warming.

At the same time, the campaign's slogans gradually began to meet with understanding not only in government agencies, but also in private corporations. For example, in a survey conducted in November 2006, it turned out that 96.1% of respondents know about this campaign, and 43.2% of enterprises practice setting the thermostat at 28 degrees. According to experts 'estimates," Cool Business " in 2006 allowed to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) by 1.14 million tons, which was significantly more than in the previous year5 .

A big contribution to the promotion of the campaign was made by senior government officials, who did not disdain to appear without jackets and ties in front of TV cameras. The tone was set by the Prime Minister Dz. Koizumi and his followers as head of government, general secretaries of the Cabinet of Ministers, as well as Ministers of the environment. During the campaign period, it has become good form for cabinet members to attend government meetings, and for politicians at all levels to speak at press conferences in clothing that meets the Cool Business dress code.

To promote the campaign's slogans, a huge amount of advertising materials were released to the masses. For example, the Ministry of Ecology published a brochure on how to dress and how to change your lifestyle during the hot season, and the Minister of Ecology Yu. Koike suggested the idea of distributing stickers Excuse my attire, I'm

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doing Cool Biz ("Sorry about my appearance. I participate in the Cool Biz campaign").

NEW FACETS OF TRADITION

A special feature of the 2011 summer campaign was that, as already mentioned, it was conducted in the context of a severe energy crisis, which made it virtually non-alternative. Therefore, the main goal of the campaign was not to reduce harmful emissions, as it was in previous years, but to save scarce electricity, without which the nation in fact simply could not survive. Although the official name of the 2011 campaign was Supercool biz ("Super Cool Business"), its second, unofficial name was Save Power Biz ("Super Cool Business").Energy-saving business"), which enterprising merchants began to use in the form of advertising inscriptions on T-shirts.

The campaign was designed to complement administrative measures aimed at large consumers and achieve results where such measures were difficult to apply. It was about increasing the degree of motivation of citizens and organizations to participate voluntarily.

The Ministry of Ecology announced five main directions for its implementation 6. First, air conditioners should be equipped only in the appropriate place, turned on at the appropriate time and installed at a minimum of 28 degrees. It was also suggested to switch to energy-efficient models of air conditioners, as well as, if possible, to use less energy-consuming fans.

Secondly, it was necessary to make changes to the work schedule, seeking to reduce the stay in industrial premises during the hottest hours: start work early in the morning and, accordingly, finish it earlier, if possible, refuse overtime, use all opportunities to perform work at home, extend the period of corporate summer vacations to two weeks (usually 5-7 days - D. S.).

Third, employees, especially office workers, were encouraged to keep to a light style of clothing and come to work without a jacket and tie, use cotton shirts and short-sleeve T-shirts, and fight the heat with a fan and a sun umbrella.

Fourth, it was recommended to better adapt production facilities to work in conditions of heat and high humidity. To combat the scorching sun rays, it was proposed to use blinds, mosquito nets, bamboo curtains and thick curtains made of natural fabrics, actively introduce energy-saving lighting devices and modern insulation materials into the office interior.

Fifth, it was suggested to use any other methods of dealing with the sweltering heat. Among them were proposed: watering roads to reduce the external temperature in business districts, turning off computer and other office equipment, putting such equipment into "sleep mode", using cooling gel stickers, ice compresses and other individual means of protection against overheating of the body.

The announcement of the campaign from the very beginning caused a mixed reaction. Skeptics did not believe that the Japanese, accustomed to comfort, would be able to rebuild in a short time and achieve any significant results of energy saving, which means that all efforts would be in vain. Opinion polls conducted on the eve of the campaign showed a rather contradictory and difficult situation in the public's attitude to the energy saving campaign announced by the government.

According to a survey conducted at the beginning of June 2011 by Panasonic Danki, which involved about 600 residents of the most affected areas of Kanto and Tohoku, more than 70% of respondents agreed with the statement that the lack of electricity will become a long-term problem, and more than 50% expressed concern about what this shortage will bring everyday inconveniences. At the same time, 88% of the survey participants were in favor of households making a feasible contribution to energy conservation. The following measures were identified as important measures for implementing this policy: "installing your own energy source in the house" (76.2% of respondents), "various methods of using energy" (71.6%), "using energy-saving appliances to achieve an effect without household inconvenience" (65.2%), "maintaining an energy-saving lifestyle, refusal to waste money" (73%)7.

In general, the survey showed that the Japanese society simultaneously has a desire to promote an energy-saving campaign and an alarmist mood in connection with the need to abandon the usual lifestyle. At the same time, the most popular position was that which combined a certain protest against the rules and norms strictly imposed from above and the desire to minimize discomfort through technical innovations, for example, by using more advanced household appliances in terms of energy saving.

This conclusion is confirmed by data from another survey conducted in the summer of 2011 by Nihon Seimei. The most popular answer to the question of what can give the greatest energy saving effect in summer was the statement about the need to switch to LED types of energy-saving lamps 8. This position gathered more supporters than the wording "abandon the use of air conditioners, or use them with great moderation" and " carefully monitor the timely switching off of lights."

The respondents saw great benefits for energy saving in "carefully monitoring the timely switching off of lights" (86.0%), "pulling the plug out of the socket and turning off the standby mode when using electrical appliances" (47.5%), "refusing to use air conditioners or using them with great moderation" (45.7%). In other words, the responses were dominated by relatively simple measures that do not require large sacrifices, such as buying new technically advanced devices.

Among the actions of the government and municipal authorities that will bring the greatest effect, the most common were the following:: "switch to daylight saving time" (18.4%), " use

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air conditioners in offices in moderate mode" (11.6%), "turn off elevators and escalators as much as possible" (10.5%), "actively use solar panels as an autonomous energy source" (4.1%). Among the methods of combating heat in office premises, the most common ones were: "open windows and blow out rooms(6.5%), "surround buildings with a green hedge made of plants" (4.2%), "use bamboo and reed curtains" (4.0%), "water the streets with water" (3.9%), "use individual cooling equipment" (3.8%). It is interesting that traditional methods of fighting the summer heat, such as bamboo curtains and watering the streets with water, which have been tested for centuries, are still very popular in the mass consciousness.

The Supercool biz campaign has been successfully launched. In addition to traditional methods - lightweight clothing for employees and an economical air-conditioning regime in offices, new measures proposed in the recommendations of the Ministry of Ecology have taken a big place in its implementation.

A number of companies have changed the work schedule for their employees, making it earlier, especially in industries with a significant level of electricity consumption. For example, Nissan's car assembly shops started working an hour earlier. Some companies have announced mandatory shutdowns by 5 p.m. and the complete abandonment of evening lighting in their offices. At other enterprises, on the contrary, the work schedule was shifted to the evening hours, when the load on the network decreases. The largest mobile phone company SoftBank announced its intention to switch 20 thousand of its employees to work at home during the summer period, which, according to economists ' calculations, should have reduced energy consumption by 30% 9.

Some enterprises, especially in the automotive, chemical and steel industries, where electricity consumption is particularly high, even suspended their production during the summer period for prevention. In accordance with the government's recommendations, many vending machines with chilled and hot drinks were turned off at night, and ATM opening hours were reduced. Some round-the-clock retail chains began to close their "convenient stores" at night.

Measures to save electricity were introduced in the metro and on the railway. At a number of stations, including busy transfer hubs (for example, at Ikebukuro station), the minimum number of working escalators was left (elevators were not turned off because this created unsolvable problems for the disabled). In each of the electric train cars of the Tokyo Yamanote line, 4 fluorescent lamps were turned off at night, which created a constant semi-darkness 10. The air conditioning systems of metro cars and electric trains were set at 27 degrees.

New technologies have come to the aid of conscious consumers who have set themselves the goal of achieving a significant reduction in electricity consumption. For example, Nihon Taekuno, a company that specializes in consulting and monitoring services in the field of electricity consumption, launched a campaign in June 2011 under the slogan " Let's start today with what we can!", offering customers a set of free services for providing information on electricity consumption, monitoring energy consumption in real time and providing forecasts. Corporate customers began receiving summary data on energy consumption over the past month in the form of graphs and diagrams, which were sent automatically by email.

Such monitoring allowed corporations and individual consumers to reduce electricity consumption by 15% with the lowest psychological, organizational and financial costs 11.

In turn, the information and search engine Yahoo Japan offered a special program in the public domain that allows you to calculate the effect of an economical mode of operation of electrical appliances. For example, if switching the air conditioner's thermostat from 26 degrees to 28 degrees can save about 10% of the electricity consumed, then switching the refrigerator's operating mode from "strong cold" to "medium cold"will save about 2% more. Timely switching off the lights is still about 5% savings 12. As a result, consumers received a clear and clear idea of how they should behave and what measures to take to achieve the desired energy saving indicators.

The results of the Supercool biz campaign were impressive. At the end of September 2011, TEPCO published energy consumption figures for the summer period. According to these data, a major reduction in energy consumption was achieved both in the corporate sector and among private households. Thus, in the class of large consumers (over 500 kW), the reduction in energy consumption was 29%, among other enterprises - 19%, among private farms-6%. Special attention was drawn to the fact that the sale of electricity by TEPCO in July-August 2011 decreased by 14%, although the average temperature in the summer months was almost the same as in the previous year.

The summer peak load on the network has also significantly decreased. In 2011, it was 49.2

page 5

GW and was registered on August 18, 2011, when the capital region reached a record temperature of 36.1 degrees for the year. This was 10.8 GW lower than the previous year's peak load on July 23, 2010. Overall, the load on the network in August 2011, compared to the same period last year, fell by about 20 %13.

DIFFICULT CHOICE

Energy saving campaigns have demonstrated the great potential of introducing energy-saving habits. But it is still difficult to count on the decisive contribution of energy saving to overcoming the problem of electricity shortage.

The same can be said about the policy of priority development of renewable sources. In connection with the Fukushima accident, it is expected to accelerate development in this area and further build up Japan's technological potential as a "green superpower".

However, the problem is that hydropower has natural limits of development, and electricity production based on other renewable sources, especially solar and wind energy, is too unstable, because it depends on weather conditions and time of day. In addition, at the current technological level, renewable energy is still significantly more expensive than traditional energy and therefore is only an additional source that is effective mainly on the scale of the local economy.

The problem is also the insular position of Japan, which is not connected by power grids to neighboring countries and is not able to buy additional volumes of electricity from outside, as many European countries do in similar circumstances.

The main direction in the future energy strategy of Japan, deprived of its own energy sources, should be to increase imports of fossil energy resources, primarily oil and gas, as well as coal.

But this way also has a number of significant disadvantages. First of all, Japan will not be able to immediately dramatically increase the import of hydrocarbons, the supply of which is overwhelmingly contracted for many years to come. At the same time, it will have to face tougher competition for the right to develop new deposits abroad with fast-growing economies, primarily China and India. The sprawl of maritime transport links that supply energy supplies to the country also creates major problems: additional funds are needed to ensure their safety.

In these circumstances, the long-term strategy of betting on hydrocarbons is fraught with high risk.

It should also be taken into account that the cost of electricity at thermal power plants is higher than at nuclear power plants. This will undoubtedly increase the financial burden on energy-consuming industries, primarily ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, production of building materials, etc.The global trend towards further increase in hydrocarbon prices cannot be ignored.

Against this background, the Japanese economy, which has been undergoing a period of structural adjustment for the third decade, finds itself in unfavorable conditions, and its competitive potential is weakening.

Finally, switching the electric power industry to hydrocarbon sources will lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions. This will hit Japan's policy of increasing the country's contribution to the fight against global warming.

Thus, the proposed complete abandonment of nuclear power will be much more difficult and painful for Japan than it seems at first glance.

The unwillingness to lose the technological potential of the peaceful atom and lose the status of a world power in the international competition for the global nuclear energy market also plays in favor of maintaining a part of the nuclear power plant in the country's energy balance. Finally, the scientific and technical resources accumulated by nuclear power are considered by the Japanese to be an important strategic reserve of Japan, which, in addition to civilian use, can potentially be useful for ensuring the country's security.

The Japanese leadership does not intend to show haste in curtailing nuclear power. After the change of cabinet in August 2011, its new leader was J. Noda confirmed that construction plans for new reactors will be suspended, and existing reactors will be decommissioned gradually as their life is depleted. This means shutting down, first of all, the oldest reactors in their design that do not meet modern safety requirements.

Solving the problem of replacing peaceful nuclear power in Japan's electricity balance remains a challenge with many unknowns.

1 http://www.asahi.com/national/update/0701/TKY201107010127.html

2 Yomiuri Shimbun, 28.04.2011 http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/business/T110427005984.htm

3 http://www.dentsu.co.jp/news/release/2011/pdf/2011050-0519.pdf#search-%272011%E5%B9 %B4%20%E5%A4%8F%2015%%E5%89%8A%E6%B8%9B%20%20%E9%9 B%BB%E5%8A%9B%27

4 http://www.env.go.jp/en/press/2005/1028a.html.

5 http://www.env.go.jp/press/press.php? serial=7690

6 http://www.challenge25.go.jp/practice/coolbiz/coolbiz2011/about.html#link2

7 http://itlifehack.jp/archives/4954009.html

8 http://itlifehack.jp/archives/4934118.html

9 http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/business/T110427005984.htm

10 http://www.asahi.com/special/10005/TKY201106140232.html

11 http://www.n-techno.co.jp/pdf/pres-srelease20110601.pdf

12 http://itlifehack.jp/archives/501229 8.html

13 http://www.kankyo-business.jp/news 2011/20110927_a.html


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