Libmonster ID: JP-1376
Author(s) of the publication: Buiskikh A.V., Zolotarev M. I.

Among the various materials on the urban planning organization of ancient cities that modern antiquity studies possess, the phenomenon of regular urban planning that appeared in the Archaic era in the cities of Magna Graecia is of particular interest. In the second half of the fifth century BC, the regular division of inner-city space into a residential area (with rectangular blocks and allotments of equal size for residential buildings) and public centers (with a specific set of religious and civil structures) received theoretical justification. The regular organization of urban space for this period is associated with the name of Hippodamus of Miletus, whose activity for several centuries to come determined the basic principles of urban planning and development, especially clearly manifested in the Hellenistic era .1

When studying ancient urban planning, the Black Sea region traditionally did not come to the attention of researchers. The only attempt, largely hypothetical, to restore a regular urban layout was made only for the Pontic Heraclea 2 . The paradox of this situation also lies in the fact that on the opposite bank of the Pontus is the Heraclea colony of Chersonesus Tauris, whose regular quarters were discovered by archaeologists almost 100 years ago! Nevertheless, all this time the urban development of Chersonesos continues to remain almost unknown not only to the world, but also to domestic science. As a rule, researchers limit themselves only to stating the fact that it has a regular urban planning system3 .

Only A. Vonsovich addressed the problem of regular planning of Chersonesus several times .4 It was the first time that Chersonesos was put on a par with such monuments

1 Western historiography currently has an extensive collection of specialized literature on this subject. Since the history of studying this issue is already a topic of separate research in itself, we will point out only the most important generalizing works, the theoretical achievements of which we used in our research: Custagnoli F. Ippodamo di Mileto e l'urbanistica a pianta ortogonale. Roma, 1956; Ward- Perkins .I.B. Cities of Ancient Greece and Italy: Planning in Classical Antiquity. N. Y., 1974; Martin R. L'urbanisme dans la Grece antique. P., 1974; Hoepfner W., Schwandner E.-L. Haus und Stadt im klassischen Griechenland. Munchen, 1986; 1994 (further cit. according to the first ed.).

Hoepfner, Schwandner. 2 Op. cit. S. 4.

3 See, for example, Ward-Perkins. Op. cit. P. 24. The complete lack of elaboration of the source was probably the reason that the regular plan of Chersonesus was not included in the generalizing monograph of V. Hofner and E.-L. Schwandner - neither in the first nor in the second expanded edition of this most complete to date a guide to the regularly planned cities of the ancient world.

Wasowicz A. 4 Zagospodarwanie przestrzenne panstw greckich: Olbia Pontyjska, Chersonez Taurydzki, Krolestwo Bosporanskie // Archeologia. 1974. XXV. S. 10-20; eadem. Zagospodarwanie przestrenne antycznych miast greckich. Wroclaw, 1982; eadem. "Urbanistyczna szkola" Sycylii i Wielkiej Grecji w okresie archaicznym // Lubelskie materialy archeologiczne. 1991. V. S. 63-74; eadem. Deux modeles d'amenagement de l'espace dans les colonies grecques // Archeologia. 1995. XLVI.

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ancient urban planning such as Miletus, Piraeus, Olynthos, Priene 5 . She also tried to identify the modular basis of the regular plan of Chersonesus, believing that the size of the quarter in 24/25 x 27/28 m indicates the use of one of the metrological systems common in the Dorian colonies in its breakdown .6 These generally correct ideas, however, were not supported by concrete archaeological material. The latter, probably, was the reason for the erroneous conclusion about the identity of the regular plan of Chersonesos to the well-known per strigas type in the urban planning of Magna Graecia of the archaic epoch 7.

G. M. Nikolaenko also touched upon the issues of dividing the inner-city space of Chersonesos. According to her assumption, the city and chora were planned using a single module-an Egyptian foot of 0.35 m. The blocks in the north-eastern region of Chersonesus, in her opinion, had dimensions of 52.5 x 52.5 m or 100 x 100 Egyptian cubits8 .

Recently, L. V. Marchenko addressed the issues of spatial organization and detailed urban planning of Chersonesos. He significantly clarified the original dimensions and areas of the blocks - 25-26 x 70-72 m (1.5 pletres), 25-26 x 52-53 m (1.0 pletres), 25-26 x 25-26 m (0.5 pletres), but the author follows the point of view of G. M. Nikolaenko on the use of the Egyptian system of linear measures in urban planning. In such blocks, in his opinion, could fit from two to six houses. The pitch of the longitudinal (52.5, in one case - 44.5 m) streets running in the direction of S-V - S-3 and the cross streets (26-27 m) running from S-V to S-3 was also traced; their average width was determined-6.0-6.5 and 3,0-3,4-4,0 m 9 .

A general analysis of the urban planning structure of Chersonesos in the context of studying the architectural history of the Northern Black Sea region was carried out by S. D. Kryzhitsky. The author emphasizes the importance of a unified planning network, the absence of districts with different orientation of planning grids in the city, and the associated far from complete subordination to the terrain. The main longitudinal street was laid along the watershed line, the main public buildings located along it were united by the absence of high-rise dominants10 . In order to develop these provisions, the authors of this article have undertaken a special urban planning analysis of the north-eastern region of Chersonesus 11 . As a result, it was found that the main longitudinal street in the northeast was closed by an important urban planning hub with a system of subordinate high-rise dominants - it was here that temenos was located with two temples and a statue of Athena (Virgin?), which formed the panorama of the city from the sea.

This, perhaps, is the limit of the works devoted to the urban development of Chersonesos. However, none of them finally resolved the issue of the module underlying the division of the city territory. In addition, the most important link in the chain of practical implementation of the idea of a regular city remains unknown - its initial urban development plan with a detailed intra-block layout. But it was this plan that determined the organization of the inner-city space of Chersonesos for a millennium. Even the transition to a new cultural and historical era and the associated new approach to the perception of urban planning with

Wasowicz A. 5 Programy urbanistyczne w Starozytnej Grecji // Balcanica Posnaniensia. 1984. III. S. 98.

Eadem. 6 "Urbanistyczna szkola"... S. 69.

Eadem. 7 Deux mocleles... S. 9.

Nikolaenko G. M. 8 Metrology of the Tauric Chersonese in the Hellenistic period (based on the materials of the IV-II centuries BC): Author's abstract... Candidate of Historical Sciences. Kiev, 1983, p. 17. This thesis is repeated in all subsequent works of the author.. for example: On the near Chora of the Tauric Chersonese in the IV century BC / / KHSB. 1996. VII. p. 25.

Marchenko L. V. 9 Topografiya i planirovka khersonessskogo gorodishcha [Topography and layout of the Chersonesus hillfort]. KHSB. 1997. VIII. pp. 64-65.

Kryzhitsky S. D. 10 Architecture of ancient cities of the Northern Black Sea region. Kyiv. 1993. pp. 87-93.

Zolotarev M. I.. Buiskikh A.V. 11 Temenos of the ancient Chersonese. Experience of architectural reconstruction / / VDI. 1994. N 3.

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the new system of cult dominants and community centers failed not only to destroy, but also to significantly change the original urban structure with its regular plan.

This study is devoted to a comprehensive study of the urban planning plan of ancient Chersonesos, consisting of several problems:: 1) finding out the upper and lower chronological boundaries of the practical implementation of the urban development plan based on reliably stratified archaeological complexes studied in various districts of the city; 2) establishing the initial layout scheme and its metrological standards, as well as the initial size of city blocks, i.e. building an ideal urban planning model. The task of reconstructing standard residential buildings in a typical block and determining their probable total number on the plan of an ideal city was specially solved. The latter provides an opportunity to give a new light to the issue of residential buildings of ordinary members of the civil community, which entails carrying out paleodemographic reconstructions at a new level. The most important result of our work is the creation of an ideal urban planning model of ancient Chersonesos, determining the place and role of its regular plan in the system of similar monuments of the ancient world.

The initial chronological reference points for the evolution of urban development were reliably established during archaeological research of the last two decades in the north-eastern part of the settlement. The earliest dwellings are represented here by buildings deepened into the mainland rock. The presence of vestibule steps, hearths, mud floors, and stratified mud bricks in the filling made it quite reasonable to classify the structures as semi-earthen dwellings typical of early Greek settlements in the Northern Black Sea region. The period of existence of these dwellings is limited to the end of the V - first quarter of the IV century BC12, after which they were simultaneously filled in and covered with ground houses. The latter, despite their poor preservation, clearly define a new chronological boundary - the second quarter (closer to the middle) of the IV century BC .13 Special attention should be paid to the fact that, as a result of stratigraphic observations, it was possible to establish that it was these houses that were blocked into regular quarters. 14 Consequently, the appearance of a regular layout in Chersonesos (at least in its northeastern part) dates back to the end of the first half - the middle of the IV century BC. 15 This chronological milestone marked the beginning of the practical implementation of the regular urban development plan of Chersonesos. The next stage of construction activity, recorded in the north-eastern district at the beginning of the last quarter of the IV century BC, concerned exclusively intra-quarter development and the organization of temenos. The basic principle of blockage of residential areas remained unchanged 16 .

Currently, all researchers of Chersonesos agree that the beginning of the last quarter of the IV century BC was marked by an unusually active construction activity within the entire city - its territory increased due to the inclusion of the western part and the northern district. Newly incorporated into the city of Terry-

Золотарьов M.I. 12 Про початковий етап будiвництва в античному Xepcoнeci // Археологiя. 1990. N 3. Pp. 73-75; onk. On two stages of construction in the North-Eastern region of Chersonesus in the IV century BC / / KHSB. 1996. VII. p. 44; on. The oldest stage of residential construction in the Dorian Chersonese / / Ancient Black Sea region. Odessa, 1998. pp. 70-78.

He is. 13 Rannie etapy gorodostroitel'stva v Chersonesos Tavricheskom [Early stages of urban development in the Tauride Chersonese]. KHSB. 1998. IX. P. 33.

14 Ibid., p. 33.

15 The earliest architectural detail of local work, a Doric order capital with a dedication to the Virgin, which crowned a votive column, also dates from the same time (Zolotarev, Buiskikh. Uk. op. p. 96).

Zilotarev. 16 Early stages ... pp. 33-34. The house, which occupies half of the second quarter, also has a reliable terminus post quem - its foundation row overlapped with pits, the filling of which dates back to the third quarter of the IV century BC. On two stages ... p. 45).

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torii was planned according to the same system as the previously demarcated north-eastern part of it17 .

Archaeological research conducted in the south - eastern part of Chersonesos in recent years has also allowed us to propose a new scheme of chronological development of defensive structures, which almost exactly corresponds to the main stages of development of residential housing construction. Almost ten meters long section of the earliest city defensive wall, dating back to the end of the fifth century BC, was identified in the area of the so-called "barracks". This forced us to reconsider the dating of the curtain wall discovered by K. E. Grinevich in 1927 (located 6.5 m south-west), and date it, together with the first construction period of the XIV gatehouse, to the middle of the IV century BC. 18 The appearance of the next line of defense, located another 6-8 m to the south-west and blocking the existing The site of the city's former necropolis dates back to the beginning of the last third of the fourth century BC, along with the entire defensive system along the southern and western borders of the city. 19

Despite the fact that the development and planning of the urban area took almost half a century, the existence of a single plan, in strict accordance with which this process took place, is beyond doubt. A variant could only be the number of blocks in the western part of the city, which is most likely due to the general change in the demographic situation .20 For us, in this case, it is important that the beginning of the practical implementation of the urban development plan of Chersonesos dates back to no later than the middle of the IV century BC. It is in the late classical era that the regular planning system receives a theoretical justification, occupies a strong place in urban planning practice and is widely used both in the construction of new cities and in mass redevelopments. existing ones.

Consequently, when studying the urban planning structure of Chersonesus, we start from the fundamentally important position that the initial urban planning plan and the real intra-block development discovered in situ are phenomena that occur on two different chronological segments. 21

Establishing a metrological module is one of the key problems of building an ideal urban planning model. A full-scale check showed that the opinion expressed earlier about the use of Egyptian standards does not correspond to reality. The preserved real dimensions of the blocks, both previously established 22 and measured by us in the north-eastern district 23, give WHO-

17. Zedgenidze A. A. 17 Attic red-figure ceramics from Chersonesus / / KSIA. 1978. 156. pp. 76-77; Zedgenidze A. A., Savelya O. Ya. Necropolis of Chersonese V-IV centuries BC / / KSIA. 1981. 168; Antonova I. A. Growth of the territory of Chersonese (according to the study of defensive walls) / / Byzantium and adjacent world. Sverdlovsk, 1990. pp. 17-18; Zolotarev M. I. K khronologii yugo - vostochnoy linii oborony Chersonese Tavrichesky [On the chronology of the South-eastern line of defense of the Tauric Chersonese]. Materials of the IIMC methodological seminar. Saint Petersburg, 1995, p. 50; Marchenko L. V. The Western region of Chersonesus in the Hellenistic period / / KHSB. 1998. IX.

Zolotarev. 18 To the chronology... p. 50; same name. Early stages ... p. 30.

Antonova Street. 19 Growth of the territory ... pp. 17-18.

20 For more details on the peculiarity of the demographic situation in Chersonesus in the middle of the IV century BC and an analysis of opinions on this problem: Zubar V. M. 3 istorii Chersonesus Taurisskogo drugoi polovini IV-cob III art. BC / / Archeologiya. 1990. N 1. p. 42 sl.

21 It should also be pointed out that, despite the strict regularity of rectangular blocks and intersecting streets, they do not have exactly the same dimensions. This situation, which is the result of numerous later alterations and alterations, significantly complicates the search for the original module and, most importantly, the definition of its standard. Full-scale measurements of building remains preserved in situ show mainly the size of medieval quarters - the red line of ancient buildings and, accordingly, the size of blocks and streets are only rarely revealed for certain. So, for example, the width of the cross street of the medieval period between the VI and III quarters is 2.8 m, the ancient one - 3.6 m.

Belov G. D. 22 Report on the excavations of Chersonesos in 1935-36. Sevastopol, 1938; same name. Hellenistic house in Chersonese / / TGE. 1962. VII. P. 143; Ryzhov S. G. House of IV-III centuries BC in Chersonese / / SA. 1985. N 4.

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Figure 1. Map of the north-eastern and northern districts of Chersonesos showing the current archaeological situation and the ideal planning scheme

it is possible to assume with a high degree of probability that the calculation was based on the standard of Attic origin, namely, a Doric foot of 0.3265 m.

Comparison of the full-scale dimensions of the measured blocks with various metrological standards (the latter were recalculated by a multiplicity of feet in 0.294, 0.301, 0.308, 0.3265, 0.350 m) gave grounds to assert that these blocks had standard dimensions of 75x200 feet of the Doric standard of 0.3265 m (24.48 x 65.30 m). The aspect ratio is 5: 8, which is close to the golden ratio. Then the length of the block of six blocks and five cross streets was 500 feet (163.25 m). The cross streets had a standard width of 10 feet (3,265 m), while the longitudinal street (Main) was up to 20 feet wide (6.5 m) (Figure 1).

Restoring the size of a standard block and the module used for its breakdown allows us to address the following question : how many residential buildings could such a block be designed for? Currently, it is reliably established that the division of urban territory allocated for residential development zones into long narrow strips-blocks-is typical of regular planning systems and has been widely used since archaic times. The same principle, but with a clear separation of the system of urban planning nodes - community centers-was used as the basis for planning cities of classical time24 . Block sizes vary widely-

23 Full - scale dimensions of blocks: I - 25.40 x?; II - 24.10 x 66.40; III (double) - 50.65 x 66.40; VI-24.25 x 66.40; VII-24x60 m.

Castaпnoli. 24 Op. cit.; Graham J.W. Notes on Houses and Housing Districts at Abdera and Himera // AJA. 1972. 76. 3. P. 300; Boyd Th.D., Jameson М.Н. Urban and Rural Land Division in Ancient Greece // Hesperia. 1981. 50. 4. P. 328.

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Figure 2. Variant of planning reconstruction of typical blocks in the north-eastern district

The metrological standard that formed the basis for dividing the city territory into blocks 25 was also different .

As for the intra-block layout, there are currently two typical variants of urban planning solutions-with four houses on the narrow side of the block (Abdera, Piraeus, Priena) and with two houses with a square (Olynthos, Himera) or sub-square (Kassona, Miletus) spot of plan 26 . Along the back walls of the houses, in most cases, there was a narrow (up to 3-4 feet wide) drainage alley. The number of houses in such a block was variable - from 2 to 10-16 in Kassop, 6 in Miletus, 10 in Olynthos, i.e. from 2 to 8 houses on the long side. The presence of standard cell houses (parcels)made it possible to easily change the size of blocks, thereby adapting the regular planning network of the city to a specific terrain.

For this reason, we assume that a similar situation could have taken place in Chersonesos (at least, similar requirements should have been taken into account in the case of Chersonesos).

Hoepfner, Schwandner. 25 Op. cit. S. 8, 36, 63.

26 Ibid. S. 258-259; Graham. Op. cit. P. 300.

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Figure 3. Variant of planning reconstruction of typical blocks (with drainage alley) in the north-eastern district

when creating a regular city project with standard blocks of residential blocks), it turned out to be quite logical. The width of a standard block of 75 feet allows for two houses, each 37.5 feet (12.24 m) wide, facing a longitudinal street (Figure 2).In this case, 5 houses 40 feet (13.06 m) long could be located on the long side of the block. Consequently, the area of such a house did not exceed 159.85 m2 . A similar planning scheme for a block of 10 houses is given by Olinf 27 . Therefore, it would not be a big mistake to assume the probable presence of a drainage alley along the back walls of houses and for the Chersonesus quarter. Its probable width was hardly more than 3 feet (1 m). In this case, the standard house had dimensions of 36x40 feet (11.75 x 13.06 m) and an area of 153.46 m3 (Figure 4). In any case, the amplitude of fluctuation of the probable area of a typical Chersonesus house is small - 153.46-159.85 m2 .

Let us now compare the parameters of the theoretically calculated typical residential building with the areas of known houses in Chersonesos and find out how realistic the existence of such houses in Chersonesos is. It is also necessary to compare the areas of typical buildings.

27 Olynthus. VIII. PI. 64.

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4. Reconstruction of typical blocks in the north-eastern region of Chersonesos. Axonometry

Chersonese houses with similar structures discovered in the Northern Black Sea region, and residential buildings known in cities with regular layouts throughout the Greek world.

In this respect, the houses studied in the northern region of Chersonesos provide valuable information. The houses excavated in 1936 had an area of 146.64 and 149 m2 (10.40 x 14.10 and 11.0 x 12.3-14.8 m2,respectively) 28 (Figs. Block XIX of four houses (Figs. 5 , 3 ) had dimensions of 24x27 m2 , and one of the houses in this block had an area of

Belov. 28 Excavation report... Plan.

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180 m2 (12x15 m) 29 . In block XVI, with an area of about 607 m2 (23.2 x 26.2 m), according to G. D. Belov, there were three houses, two of which had a typical layout scheme, and the third-atypical and consisted of a number of rooms stretched along the X-cross street 30 (Fig. 5, 1). Residential buildings in this quarter are very interesting and require more detailed consideration, especially since, in our opinion, the planning reconstruction of G. D. Belov needs significant adjustments.

When studying residential housing construction in the ancient cities of the Northern Black Sea region, S. D. Kryzhitsky drew attention to the high degree of organization of the regular layout of Chersonese and, of course, the associated higher level of typification of dwellings than in other centers. The latter was reflected in the clear rectangularity and symmetry of the planning schemes of houses - the location of the entrance corridor along the main longitudinal axis, and the courtyard-across it. 31 S. D. Kryzhitsky also agreed with the planning reconstruction of houses on the northern bank, including in the XVI quarter, proposed by G. D. Belov. The house studied by M. A. Nalivkina in Kalos Limen and reconstructed by A. N. Shcheglov32 was also placed on a par with the Chersonese houses, based on a single equivalent-parallel planning principle (Figs. 5, 6).

Houses with a similar equivalent-parallel layout principle are also open in Kerkinitida 33 (figs. 5, 10) and Kalos Limen 34 . The direct connection of these houses with the Chersonese construction tradition is beyond doubt. Outside the Chersonesus state, the only house with a parallel layout principle is known only in Olbia 35 (Figs. 5, 9). S. D. Kryzhitsky was the first to draw attention to this, pointing out the atypical nature of such a planning scheme for Olvia. As an analogy, they gave the plan of the Chersonesus estate of allotment No. 4 on the Mayachny Peninsula, which was planned according to the same parallel principle 36 (Figs. 5, 8).

It is obvious that all the listed houses were built on a single principle, which was based on a standard planning scheme of four mutually intersecting axes - two longitudinal and two transverse. This scheme allowed for a few options for the location of the courtyard relative to symmetrically planned residential and utility rooms 37 . Emphasizing the exceptional importance of this discovery, we dare to assert that in the history of ancient urban planning, this is only the second real case of an archaeologically recorded whole series of typical residential buildings of ordinary members of the urban civil community.-

29 Unfortunately, it is very difficult to determine the exact size of the XIX quarter now - in another publication (Belov. Hellenistic house ... pp. 143-144. Fig. 1) the dimensions of 24x23 m are given, and our measurements according to the published plan give the dimensions of 24.7 x 28.5 m. Therefore, the amplitude of the block area fluctuation is 648-704 m2 . Accordingly, each house on average accounted for about 162-176 m2 .

Belov G. D., Strzheletsky S. F. 30 Kvartaly XV i XVI (excavations of 1937) / / MIA. 1953. 34. Table 1.

Kryzhitsky S. D. 31 Residential houses of ancient cities of the Northern Black Sea region (VI century BC-IV century AD). Kiev, 1982. pp. 48-49.

Shcheglov A. N. 32 Zhilyi dom hellenisticheskogo Kalos Limena (opyt rekonstruktsii) [32 Residential house of the Hellenistic Kalos Limen (reconstruction experience)]. Residential buildings... p. 54.

Kutaisov V. A. 33 The ancient city of Kerkinitida. Kiev, 1990. p. 106. Fig. 57-house No. 7 with an area of 93 m2 .

Kutaisov V. A., Uzhentsev V. B. 34 Nekotorye itogi izucheniya Kalos Limena [Some results of studying Kalos Limen]. 2 - a house with an area of 100 m2 in the so-called "citadel". The authors found a planning analogy to the house from the citadel of Kalos Limena in the house No. 14 from Kerkinitida. However, it seems to us that the closest analogy can only be house No. 7.The location of the entrance and the shape of the courtyard (rectangular or L-shaped) do not play a significant role - it is important to have a single symmetrical principle for marking the house plan.

Residential ensembles of ancient Olbia (IV-II centuries BC). Kiev, 1971. pp. 22-25. Fig. 10-I-4 house with an area of 242 m2 .

36 Ibid., p. 24; Strzheletskiy S. F. Klery Chersonese Tavrichesky / / KHSB. 1961. VI. Fig. 14.

37 Here you should not pay attention to the existing deviations from the scheme, as, for example, in the houses of the XIX quarter. It is important to have a single original planning principle, which was clearly maintained in house II and only partially preserved in house I (Fig. 4, 3).

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5. Residential buildings of Chersonesos: 1-4 - blocks on the northern bank; 5, 6 - Kalos Limen; 7 , 12-Pansky - 1; 8 - estates of allotment No. 4 on the Mayachny Peninsula; 9-Olbia; 10, 11-Kerkinitids

classical time trends. Prior to our study, the only known example was in Olynthos, where an almost square spot of the house plan is divided by two longitudinal and three transverse axes .38

When comparing the plans of residential buildings in Chersonesos and Olynthos, it is obvious that the more developed planning principle of the latter assumed the mandatory presence of a facade located parallel or perpendicular to the protron 39 . The planning principle-

Hoepfner. Schwandner. 38 Op. cit. S. 48-49. Abb. 34.

39 Ibid. Abb. 35.

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The method of organizing Chersonese houses was simpler and more economical - they belonged to the type of borderless houses with a small area of 40 square meters . The widespread use of the order, both Ionic and Doric, in the residential construction of Chersonesus 41 is most likely due to the large area and developed layout houses that appeared in the Hellenistic period and coexisted with the houses of the typical scheme 42 .

Based on the proposed new principle of organization of Chersonese houses, it is advisable to correct the planning reconstruction of houses in the XVI quarter of Chersonese, proposed by G. D. Belov. Here, as we believe, there were not 3, but 4 standard houses of a typical planning scheme, with an area of about 150 m2 each (Fig. 5, 1) (according to the published drawing - 143.64; 142.24; 157.95; 153.9 m2 ). Quarter XV most likely had a similar layout. Judging by the reconstruction of the plan, it was 22.8 x 27.1 m in size and 617.88 m2 in area . Consequently, the average area of each house was theoretically about 154.47 m2 . In general, the above calculations show that the average area of houses on the northern bank was 150-162 m2, thus consistent with the theoretically calculated area of a house in a typical block.

Another reconstruction that needs a modern adjustment belongs to A. N. Shcheglov43 . If we follow the unified planning principle established by us, then it is hardly possible to reconstruct the width of the Kalos Limen house development site in 14 m (Figs. 5, 6). For the same reason, there is no need to "hold out" the area of the house to 200 m2 . It was most likely within 100-140 m2, approaching the area of the smallest house on the northern bank of the Chersonese, but did not exceed it. The coincidence of the layout and size of another house in Kalos Limen 44 (Figures 5, 5) suggests certain patterns in the residential construction of Kalos Limen, which, of course, require confirmation by further excavations. It is only obvious that the area of the Chersonese model house is somewhat larger than that of the similar house in Kalos Limen and Kerkinitida, although the planning and compositional principles of construction were certainly the same.

From the same point of view, we should also consider the houses of the middle of the IV century BC, discovered on Panskom-1. This is a house attached from the outside to the wall of the complex at 7 45 , and houses at 2-2 and 2-3 46 (Figs. 5, 7, 12). The symmetrical plan of the buildings allowed the authors of the excavations to connect them quite rightly with the Chersonesus building tradition, and in relation to the last two - to conclude that they belong to "buildings of the so-called 'Olynthian' type, but with an original compositional solution, first encountered in the spatial organization of Greek settlements " 47 .

We have shown above that residential buildings, whose spatial organization was built on the same principle as the houses of Olynthos 48, were first identified in Chersonesos

Kryzhitsky. 40 Residential buildings ... pp. 43-49. Fig. 18.

Buiskikh L. V. 41 Nekotorye problemy izucheniya doricheskogo orda Chersonese [Some problems of studying the Doric Order of Chersonese]. The Ionic Order in the architecture of Chersonesus in the IV-II centuries BC / / KHSB. 1998. IX. p. 53.

Kryzhitsky. 42 Residential buildings... p. 43; Zolotarev. Early stages ... p. 33.

Goldfinches. 43 Residential building... p. 235.

Kutaisov, Uzhentsev. 44 Some results...

Stolba V. F. 45 House of the IV century BC on the settlement of Panskoe-1 (excavations in 1987). 1991. 204 p. 78 sl.

Stolba V. F., Khannestad L .. Shcheglov A. N. 46 Excavations of the settlement of Panskoe-1 in the Crimea]. Izuchenie kul'turnykh vzaimodeystviy i novye arkheologicheskie otkrytii: Materialy plenuma IIMK. Saint Petersburg, 1995, pp. 50-53; Shcheglov A. N. Issledovaniya Tarkhankutskoy expeditsii [Studies of the Tarkhankut expedition]. 1994. Simferopol, 1997. p. 275.

Goldfinches. 47 Issledovaniya ... p. 275.

48 From our point of view, it is just as pointless to refer Chersonese houses to the "Olynthian type" as Olynthian houses to the "Chersonesian type", especially since there is no absolutely identical planning organization here. We can talk about a single principle of building a typical residential building in a city with a regular layout, developed precisely by the classical time. The theoretical development of W. Hofner and E.-L. Schwandner, based on the materials of Olynthos, was confirmed in the Tauric Chersonesus.

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G. D. Belov back in the 1930s. The houses found on Panske differ from those of Chersonesus primarily in certain variability of plan. The main block of the house at 2-2, with an area of 156 m2 (as in Chersonesos), was increased by the yard area, and the total area was 260 m2 . A house attached to an earlier wall with a tower, on the contrary, has an incomplete plan. It also follows the principle of symmetry, the presence of two longitudinal axes, but at the same time - one transverse (Fig. 5, 12 ). A similar house with an incomplete symmetrical plan is also known in Kerkinitida 49 (Figs. 4, 11). Deviations from the standard plan in this case, apparently, should be explained either by the lack of such strict regulations as were imposed on regular intra-block development in Chersonesos, or by the need to" fit " the house into the previously established block layout, as was the case in Kerkinitida.

The urban land fund of Chersonesos was subject to changes in the course of the city's later life, as a result of which the area of individual land plots for residential development could vary by 50 . Nevertheless, with a high degree of probability, we can say that the construction of residential buildings in Chersonesos was carried out according to an ideal standard project. It is impossible to say for certain that the entire city was built up with such houses almost simultaneously during the second half of the IV century BC. e. The construction of small-sized standard residential buildings was carried out later, in the IV century BC.e. Judging by the available data, such houses, but with certain alterations, existed throughout the Late Hellenistic time.

When comparing typical residential buildings of Chersonesos with similar structures with a regular layout in other cities of the ancient world, attention is drawn to the fact that Chersonesos houses have the smallest area of 51 ; only Kasmens had similar residential buildings. There are several reasons for this. First of all, the actual area allocated for urban development and the number of households on it. In other words, the number of houses corresponds to the free male population that makes up the urban civil community. It should be noted that residential buildings with an area of 100 and 200 m were classified by S. D. Kryzhitsky as ordinary houses with a small area of 52 . In the Northern Black Sea architecture, small residential buildings are a fairly widespread phenomenon. In addition to Chersonesus, they are also known in the cities of the Northwestern Black Sea region - Olbia, Tyre, and in the cities of the Bosporus .53 As for the layout, it is clear that the parallel principle is typical for ordinary residential development of Late classical-Early Hellenistic Chersonesos and other settlements that were part of the Chersonesos state.

The standard house plan also implies the use of a single module in intra-block buildings. It should be noted that attempts to identify this module have already been made. Thus, A. N. Shcheglov pointed out the use of the Attic (Attic-Euboean) standard in the layout of a reconstructed residential building in Kalos Limen. Moreover, the actual module (according to A. N. Shcheglov) was not a foot, but an orgy of the specified standard of 1.77 m. Empirically, as a result of comparing the structure of-

Kutaisov. 49 Antique city... p. 111-house No. 2.

50 An example of this is Block II, which contained two residential buildings with an area of more than 600 m each (Ryzhov. Uk. soch.).

51 The dimensions and areas of residential buildings in ancient cities are collected in the work of V. Hofner and E.-L. Schwandner (1994): Kasmena - 156.25 m2; Akragant-204 m2; Prien-207.10 m2; Megara Giblea-207.36 m2; Kamarina-209.55 m2 ; Abdera-212.38 m2 : Selinunt-218.95 m2; Kassopa-225 m2; Naxos-227.55 m2; Piraeus-241 m2; Himera-256 m2; Miletus-259 m2; Kombo-268 m2; Olynthos-294 m2; Rhodes-422 m2 .

Kryzhitsky. 52 Residential ensembles ... p. 103.

He is. 53 Residential buildings ... pp. 32-40, 70.

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The author came to the conclusion that a similar standard was applied in the Hellenistic residential construction of Chersonesus54 .

It should be recalled that the Attico-Euboean standard, after its introduction by Solon in Athens as an official standard, became widespread in Attica and eventually became perhaps the most popular and universal linear standard in the ancient world .55 In the Northern Black Sea region, this standard has been widely adopted since the second half of the IV century BC, and it is typical primarily for small-scale architecture, as well as for residential buildings and defensive structures .56 The same standard was adopted as a basis for stonemasons - the processing of the front facades of masonry in residential buildings (framing, rustication) took place taking into account the Attic-Euboean standard-foot and its fractions-palm (1/4 foot) and span (2/3 foot). In addition to A. N. Shcheglov, G. M. Nikolaenko also pointed out the use of this standard in residential buildings in Chersonesus .57 Based on the known multiplicity of all linear standards 58, the dimensions of a typical Chersonesus house (36-37. 5 x 40 Doric feet) can also be recalculated to the multiplicity of the Atticoeubean standard (40-41 x 44 feet).

So, stating the use of two different standards of linear measures in the quarterly (Doric foot at 0.3265 m) and intra-quarterly (Attico-Euboean foot at 0.296 m) development of Chersonesos, it should be noted that this phenomenon is rare. Most often, the urban plan and residential development were designed taking into account a single linear standard-Piraeus, Kassopa, Miletus, etc. 59 Nevertheless, ancient urban planning knows examples of using different standards in urban planning and development. As the closest analogy, Olynthus can again be cited, with the only difference being that the breakdown of the city plan of the latter was made taking into account the Attico-Euboean foot of 0.295 m, and many residential buildings-taking into account the Doric standard of 0.328 m 60 . According to Olin researchers, this situation reflected various stages in the construction activity, namely, the implementation of the city's master plan and ordinary development. Our metrological calculations give every reason to assume that a similar situation has developed in Chersonesos. It is unlikely that the general plan of the city was developed directly in Chersonesos. Most likely, a typical urban planning model was used here, only corrected and tied to a specific area. We have come close to reconstructing this model.

The study of the layout of blocks in the north-eastern part of the city suggests the following solution. Most likely, the detailed layout was based on a typical square grid, which included blocks designed for a certain number of residential buildings, as well as longitudinal and transverse streets (Figure 6). In the latitudinal direction, such a square consisted of seven strips of blocks, 75 feet wide, separated by seven transverse streets, six of which were located in the center of the city. they were 10 feet wide and one 20 feet wide; a total of 605 feet of 0.3265 m standard or

Goldfinches. 54 Residential building... p. 235.

Derpfeld W. 55 Metrologische Beitrage. V. Das aginaische-attische Mass-System // MDAI 1890. 15. S. 167; Michaelis A. The Metrological Relief at Oxford // JUS. 1883. IV. P. 337.

Berzin E. O. 56 On linear measures of the Bosporus / / SA. 1956. N XXVI; Буйських А.В. Ордер в античнiй арxiтeктypi Ольвii, Тiри, Херсонеса: Автореф. дис... Kand. ist. nauk Kiiv, 1993. p. 13.

57 Within the Chersonesus state, the Atticoeubean standard of 0.296 m was recently identified in the Kerkinitida residential development (Pavlenkov V. I. Kerkinitida and Tauric Chersonese wall construction in the V-III centuries BC (according to metrology data) / / Ancient Polis and local population of the Black Sea region. Sevastopol, 1995. p. 126) and the construction complex (fortified manor) of the first half of the III century BC on the Chayka hillfort (Yatsenko I. V., Turina T. N. Building of the III century BC on the Chayka hillfort in Yevpatoria (reconstruction option) / / Monuments of the Iron Age in the vicinity of Yevpatoria. 1991, pp. 115-116).

Busing H. 58 Metrologische Beitrage / / JDAI. 1982. 97. S. 9.

Hoefpner. Schwandner. 59 Op. cit. S. 20, 35, 305.

60 Olynthus. VIII. PI. 46 - 48.

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Fig. 6. Reconstruction of the Chersonesos plan using a square grid

197.5 m. It was more difficult to reconstruct the detailed layout of the square in the meridian direction. Thus, the longitudinal street identified in situ, located to the south-east of the Main Longitudinal One, runs along the watershed line, along the edge of the terrace (the height difference here is currently up to 15 m). The length of the open-plan medieval quarters bounded by this street in the south-east is 44.5 m. Considering that the excavations in this part of the ancient settlement were not brought to the level of building remains of ancient times, we can offer several options for planning reconstructions.

Northwest of the Main Longitudinal Street, which was 20 feet wide, were blocks 200 feet long, with five houses on the long side. To the southeast of the Main Longitudinal Street, blocks could be designed for 18 houses, i.e. containing 9 houses on the 360-foot long side. Then, in the south-east, at the foot of the terrace, another longitudinal street, 20 feet wide - only 600 feet of the specified standard, or 195.87 m (Figure 7).

Note that when dividing a block by area (with 9 houses on the long side), it was necessary to take into account the difficult terrain and adjust the details of the layout on the spot. Therefore, it is quite possible that the longitudinal street along the watershed line could have been broken only when the blocks were marked directly on the slope. Then the blocks southeast of the Main Longitudinal Street consisted of three houses on the long side (120 feet), then a longitudinal street 10 feet wide, and on the slope of the terrace there were blocks with six houses on the long side (240 feet), bounded on the southeast by another longitudinal street 10 feet wide 8). It cannot be completely excluded that the longitudinal street along the watershed may well have appeared even later, in medieval times. Cross streets in this part of the settlement could be organized in the form of ramps or stairs61 . Both solutions do not contradict the ancient urban planning model.

61 For more information, see Marchenko. Topografiya... P. 65.

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Figure 7. Variant of planning reconstruction of the north-eastern district of Chersonesos

practice. However, in all cases, regardless of the number of longitudinal streets intersecting blocks, the number of residential buildings remained unchanged. The large square, which was the basis of the layout, was designed for 196 standard residential buildings.

It seems to us that the dimensions of the reconstructed square were most likely 605 x 605 feet. In the process of direct division of blocks, the dimensions of one of its sides were adjusted to take into account the rather complex terrain. In addition, the meridian side of a large square could be shortened by 5 feet for another very significant reason. The next large square, divided southwest of the first, with one of its corners and a corresponding cross street, was clearly oriented to the most important urban planning node of the new city gate in the southeast (Figure 6). It was here, with the design side of the square of 605 feet, that the extreme south-eastern longitudinal street would block the already existing one the north-western wall of the "barracks" and a stepped tomb located as if in alignment with it. In this case, the city gate was located just a few meters from the intersection of two main planning axes-transverse and longitudinal streets, each 20 feet wide.

It should be noted that the scheme of preliminary division of the urban area into large squares consisting of a certain number of residential blocks is generally typical of ancient urban planning practice and has existed since archaic times. It is traced, in particular, in the regular plan of Helieus of the seventh century BC. The modular grid there was based on a square with a side of 707 feet of the standard 0.297 m 62 . A similar system is typical of Rhodes in classical times, where the layout was based on a 600-foot square with a standard of 0.335 m 63 .

Boyd, Jameson. 62 Op. cit. P. 332, 333.

Kondis J.D.. 63 Zum antiken Stadtbauplan von Rhodes // MDAI. 1958. 73. S. 148 - 149; Konatantinopoulos G. Stadtbau im hellenistischen Rhodes // Akten des XIII Intern. Kong. fur klassische Archaologie. В., 1988. S. 209. Abb. 1. If M. Vickers is right about dating the regular layout of Thessalonica to the Early Hellenistic period (Vickers M. Hellenistic Thessaloniki / / JHS. 1972. XCII. P. 159-161), then it is possible that the latter was also based on a system of similar squares.

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Figure 8. Variant of planning reconstruction of the north-eastern district of Chersonesos (with a longitudinal street along the watershed)

No less interesting is the reconstruction of the layout of the next large square, the extreme cross street of which, passing along the watershed of Teatralnaya balka, led to the south-eastern city gate 64 . This square consisted of a smaller number of city blocks, since a significant part of it was occupied by the agora (Figure 9). Its dimensions can only be determined very approximately. Most likely, the agora was rectangular in shape, bounded by main longitudinal and transverse streets, each 20 feet wide. Then its length could theoretically be 173 m or 580 ft. Determining the width of the agora is no less difficult. In any case, it did not exceed the length of a block of 10 houses-65.3 m or 200 feet. It is unlikely that the width of the agora further east from the Main Longitudinal Street remained the same. This is doubted by the existence of the so-called mint building, located in the southern part of this square and facing just the Main Street. So, the agora's dimensions were approximately 65.3 x 173 m or 200 x 530 ft.

It should also be noted that we use the term "agora" only conditionally - at present it is not possible to determine exactly whether this entire area on the central plateau was occupied by an agora. It is possible that some part of it was also reserved for the temenos. As a rule, in an ancient city at the same time

64 Does not the presence of such a square also explain the route of an earlier fortress wall, the remains of which are preserved in this particular place? In this case, this is another additional argument in favor of the correctness of our dating of the town-planning plan to the middle of the IV century BC.

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there were several places of worship. All that is clear is that the square bounded by four main streets, almost in the center of the city, was probably removed from the residential development zone and played an extraordinary role in the urban infrastructure.

In this connection, let us say a few words about another Chersonesus temenos, the reconstruction of which we have devoted a separate work 65. It seems to us that this temenos was also separated from the residential areas by a main street (20 feet wide) for processions and a monumental fence. The site of the central entrance, which is paved with slabs extending the direction of the Main Longitudinal Street (Figs. 7, 8), and is most likely designed in the form of small propylaea, is being reconstructed quite accurately. The dimensions of this iconic site can also be set with certain tolerances. In the northwest, it was bounded, apparently, by another longitudinal street that followed the Main One. On this side, too, there might well be another entrance to temenos. In the southeast, its border probably ran along the watershed line. Thus, the length of the site is being reconstructed within 111 m or 340 ft. The width of the site, whose natural boundary in the northeast was the sea cliff, is being reconstructed in the range of 30-40 m or 90-120 ft.

In this case, if another temenos was located on the central plateau, then it was connected with the temenos in the northeast by a single compositional axis. In addition, the high-rise dominants of the central cult site effectively "worked" for almost the entire circular panorama of the city, both from the land entrances, and from the port and seashore.

Comparing the ideal urban planning plan we are reconstructing with the actual archaeological situation, we can also verify their almost complete identity by using the North bank blocks as an example (Figure 1). First of all, the presence of main cross streets 20 feet wide separating large squares is restored with a high degree of reliability precisely due to the good preservation and study of the layout of the XIV blocks, XV, XVI, which exactly "sit" on the ideal plan.

The revealed regularities confirming the actual existence of the ideal urban planning model of Chersonesos and its practical implementation within the north-eastern, central and northern districts allow reproducing a regular network of standard quarters for the entire western part of the settlement with a fairly high degree of reliability. The latter was fully planned for residential development in the Hellenistic period66 . However, it is also possible that in the western district some area was allocated for public buildings, but no specific information on this issue yet exists 67 .

The system of large squares that formed the basis of the planning network" worked", apparently, not only in Hellenistic times, but also in subsequent epochs. It is certainly clear that the basic urban planning idea of a regular city turned out to be programmed for all the subsequent centuries of Chersonesus ' existence. Nothing else can explain the fact that all subsequent reconstructions of defensive lines, i.e. those that directly concerned the change in the city boundaries, turned out to be correlated with the system of squares. In the south-eastern part of the city nodal tower XXI Primorskaya

Zolotarev, Buiskikh. 65 Uk. op.

Marchenko. 66 Western district ... pp. 80-81. There is also an opinion that this territory was never developed, at least in Hellenistic times (for more information, see Antonova. Growth of the territory... p. 17).

67 We do not yet consider it necessary to join the discussion about the existence of a stadium in the south-western part of the city. Based on the currently available sources, this issue cannot be resolved unambiguously. The existence of such a structure in Chersonesos during the Hellenistic period is in principle possible, although it is not proven by real archaeological facts (see more argumentation: Marchenko. The Western district ... pp. 81-82).

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9. Reconstruction of the ideal urban development plan of Chersonesos. Three-dimensional reconstruction option (architect V. Tikhomirov)

lines dating from the II-III centuries AD and port gates dating from the X-XI centuries 68 clearly fall on the corners of the semi-squares. Towers I and III, as well as gates in the western defensive line, are similarly oriented (Fig. 6).

The planning features of the blocks that we have studied made it possible to reconstruct the ideal urban development plan of Chersonesos (Figure 9). We are fully aware that the reconstruction we are proposing for the first time may not be without drawbacks and is likely to cause critical comments. At the same time, we are confident that our reconstruction will serve as a basis for further development of this important problem.

The reconstruction of the Chersonese town-planning plan allowed us to give a new light to some controversial issues concerning both the urban layout and the connection of the latter with the defensive system, which are interpreted differently by researchers. First of all, it is a problem of localization of the main city gate. Even A. L. Berthier-Delagard insisted on the location of the main gate in the western line of defense, between the VII and VIII towers, believing that the gate at the XIV tower was located in an unfortunate place (for two reasons: first, from the point of view of their defense, and, secondly, due to the fact that that "they led conveniently only to the port, and the city had to climb from the gate itself along steep streets") 69 . I. A. Antonova agreed with his arguments. However, she believed that the western gate was located between Towers VI and VII, since it was from here (in her opinion) that the Main Longitudinal Street began, which turned south twice and went straight only in the area of theater 70 .

It seems to us that the very idea of a single main gate and a single main street of the city is initially erroneous. Some of this has already been noticed

Antonova Street. 68 Growth of the territory ... pp. 20-22.

Berthier-Delagard A. L. 69 O Chersonese / / IAK. 1907. 21. Pp. 126, 134.

Antonova Street. 70 Growth of the territory ... pp. 17-18.

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I. A. Antonova and L. V. Marchenko, who, in addition to the Main Longitudinal Street, also singled out the Main Cross Street 71 . We assume that the city had several main (main) longitudinal and transverse streets. Such cross streets were streets that delimited large squares. Their width was the same everywhere-20 feet (6.5 m). Just such a cross street approached the south-eastern gate at the XIV tower. Consequently, from the south - eastern gate, the road opened not only to the port, but also to the central part of the city, directly to the city's public center. At the same time, the steepness of the street rise did not play any role, since the ideal urban planning model did not take into account the actual terrain. As for the longitudinal main streets (also 20 feet wide), it is obvious that there were at least two of them, equivalent in their role in urban infrastructure. It is possible that in the north-western part there could also be a third main longitudinal street (the medieval gate is oriented to it), and the fourth, according to the project, passed in the south-eastern part. If we also imagine that the First longitudinal street (Main Street) was oriented strictly to the eighth tower and the gate located just next to it, then the need to align the only longitudinal street by two turns to the south also disappears, which is incompatible with the requirements of regular planning 72 .

So, we can state the presence of five transverse and four longitudinal main streets in the ideal regular scheme of Chersonesos, the routes of which were partially corrected in the practical binding of the urban development plan to the terrain. The southwestern, southeastern, and southern defense lines had gates of equal importance.

An important problem arising from our reconstructed urban planning scheme is demographic. Based on the proposed reconstruction, it is possible to really imagine how many standard residential buildings could be located in the city and, accordingly, how many free citizens such a city was designed for. Since the area allocated for urban development and the number of houses in blocks are practically reliably known, and only the area of public development is unknown, an analysis of the restored urban development situation shows that at least 58-64% of the city's territory was allocated for residential development in Chersonesos (excluding the central square, streets, port and outlying parts near the cliffs). (out of a total area of 29 hectares, 73 residential blocks could occupy 20-22 hectares) 74 . Our calculations confirm S. D. Kryzhitsky's thesis that the more significant a city is in cultural, political and economic terms, the larger percentage of the area will be occupied by buildings

71 Both authors agree that the central cross street was oriented to the gate located between the XII and XIII towers, with the only difference being that L. V. Marchenko, following K. E. Grinevich, refers these gates to the second half of the IV century BC (Zapadny rayon... p. 81), and I. A. Marchenko, following K. E. Grinevich, refers these gates to the second half of the IV century BC (Zapadny rayon ... p. 81). Antonova dates them to the second century AD (South-eastern section... p. 110).

72 In the process of directly dividing the plan by location in the south-western part, it was necessary to take into account the difficult terrain and slightly change the route of the defensive line, drawing it along a steep rock slope (see Antonova. Growth of the territory... p. 17). It cannot be completely ruled out that the gate in the southern line of defense, located between the XII and XIII towers, was originally supposed to be located to the west, between the XI and XII towers, in the center of the 13 curtain, 110 m long. It is to this point that the transverse and longitudinal main streets approach - only a steep ascent made them move to the east, behind the XII tower.

Marchenko L. V. 73 Topografiya i planirovka khersonessskogo gorodishcha [Topography and layout of the Chersonesus hillfort]. KHSB. 1997. VIII. p. 64.

74 We proceed from the calculation methodology proposed by S. D. Kryzhitsky in relation to the cities of the Northern Black Sea region (To the question of determining the number of people in the Greek Hellenistic city) / / Black Sea region in the Hellenistic era: Materials of the III All-Union Symposium on the Ancient History of the Black Sea region. Tskaltubo Publ., 1982. Tbilisi, 1985). Our data, however, differ from those obtained by S. D. Kryzhitsky, primarily due to the specification of the area of the city at the end of the IV century BC and the area of residential development (S. D. Kryzhitsky's area of Chersonesus is 30-35 ha, respectively, the area of residential development occupied in his calculations 51-53% or 15.5-18.5 ha-ibid., p. 96).

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public use 75 . Based on the known number of blocks, you can also determine the maximum allowable number of households (oikopedons) for which the city was designed - 1000-1300. The lower limit is calculated based on the actual number of houses located on the entire hillfort plateau. Upper - gives the maximum allowed number of residential buildings without taking into account the terrain features. The lower limit of digits seems most likely to us.

Consequently, the civil community of Chersonesos must have consisted, most likely, of 1,000 citizens. These data also allow us to clarify the number of free people who could live in the city. It is necessary to emphasize that, given the variability of certain methods for determining the population size in the ancient city of 76, they are generally characterized by the absence of a single criterion in determining the family size. Thus, S. D. Kryzhitsky, following V. Ehrenberg, accepts the average family size of 7.5 people, and together with the service staff - 8-10 people. According to his data, in the Hellenistic Chersonesus, only 10-11 thousand people could live .77

A different method of calculating the number of civilians was proposed by V. M. Zubar. Based on the analysis of the area allocated for typical land plots on the Heraclea Peninsula, V. M. Zubar suggests that the number of citizens was approximately 2 thousand people. Taking the average family size of 5 people after V. D. Blavatsky, V. M. Zubar believes that the average free population of Chersonesus was about 9,5-11 thousand people .78

Studying the urban development plan of Chersonesos allowed us to offer our own demographic calculations. However, it should be noted that we were trying to find out first of all not the total number of the population (both generally civil and dependent) who lived in Chersonesos in Hellenistic times. We are interested in the theoretical number of citizens and the approximate number of free people that the city could be designed for. So, we have established that Chersonesos was planned based on 1000-1300 citizens, according to the number of standard residential buildings. As for the total number of free people, based on the average family composition of 5 people, the city could be designed for 5000-6500 inhabitants, and based on a family of 7.5 people, 7500-9750 inhabitants, respectively. 79

To confirm the conclusions about the number of free male population, V. M. Zubar was attracted to the Chersonesus theater, whose capacity after perestroika in the II century AD was from 3,000 to 5,000 people .80 It should be noted, however ,that during the forty-year (intermittent) study of this unique monument, O. I. Dombrovsky repeatedly clarified its layout. 81 According to the latest data, the theatron consisted of 7 sectors divided into 10 rows, with the extreme sectors having two rows less than 82 . Using these figures, it is easy to calculate that the capacity of the theater was about 800-850 people. Most likely, this is the lower limit, but the fact that the upper limit is unlikely to exceed 1000 people, there is no doubt

75 Ibid., p. 95. For cities of a smaller area, in particular for Tyra, the percentage of the area under public buildings hardly exceeded 15-20% (Kryzhitsky S. D. On the possible number of the population of Tyra / / Akkermanskie drevnosti. Issue 1. Belgorod-Dniester, 1997, p. 61).

76 For more information, see Kryzhitsky. To the question...

77 Ibid., pp. 101-102.

Zubar V. M. 78 Tauric Chersonesus in the ancient era. Kiev, 1993. p. 18.

79 It is interesting to compare the probable civilian population of Chersonesos with the number of citizens of an ideal city according to Plato-5040 (Legg. 737 d-e).

Zubar. 80 Chersonesos of Tauris... p. 18. For O. I. Dombrovsky's argumentation and early reconstruction of the theater, see The ancient theater in Chersonesos (excavations in 1954-1958) / / SHM. 1960. 1. p. 36.

81 According to the plan published by S. D. Kryzhitsky (Architecture... p. 144. Fig. 99), it is obvious that the capacity of the theater was less than indicated.

Dombrovskiy O. I. 82 Raboty na uchastke chersonesskogo teatra v 1991-1994 gt. [Construction Works on the Chersonesus Theater site in 1991-1994]. Simferopol, 1997, pp. 37-88.

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causes it. Thus, the maximum capacity of the Chersonesus theater, according to updated data, is in good agreement with the lower limit of the possible number of citizens in the city.

In addition to determining the capacity of the theater in Chersonesos, to determine the number of civilians, it is also necessary to involve the materials of the choir. By now, it can be considered reliably established that chora on the Heraclea Peninsula, including Mayachny, consisted of 2,398 standard plots with an area of 4.4 hectares. Ownership of a land plot for the Chersonesite served as a guarantee of its full rights in the urban civil community, and the forces of one family were sufficient to cultivate an allotment of such an area .83 To find out the number of citizens, V. M. Zubar used a calculation method in which public and temple lands, which were necessarily part of the general land fund of the policy and, based on numerous analogies, were determined by him in the amount of 1/5 - 1/10 parts of this fund, were mechanically subtracted from the total amount of land .84 At that time, the number of citizens was really close to two thousand people, which is twice the number of owners of land plots in the city that we set.

However, there doesn't seem to be any discrepancy here. It seems to us that the number of standard land plots on Khora, which is twice the projected number of houses (originally planned number of citizens) in the city, was not accidental, but was a deeply thought-out program. The project of an ideal city with a regular planning system, from our point of view, also took into account the future increase in the civilian population no less than twice in a generation, both as a result of direct reproduction and as a result of the influx of new members into the civilian community. Ancient Greek colonization practice has known examples of early reservation of land on Chora for new members of the citizens of Polis 85 . Another thing is that after the annexation of the western part, the possibilities for further expansion of the city territory were exhausted. The favorable economic and political situation that developed in the second half of the fourth century BC, along with a demographic explosion, led to a large-scale internal colonization of Chersonesos in the Northwestern Crimea at this time .86

So, our proposed model from the ideal urban development plan of Chersonesos shows that the policy was originally designed for a thousand citizens. At the same time, the prospective increase in the civilian population was taken into account, which prompted the Chersonesites to reserve land plots on the Heraclea Peninsula in advance.

Let's sum up some results. The experience of reconstruction of the ideal urban plan of Chersonesos gives every reason to consider this Northern Black Sea center on a par with such famous monuments of ancient urban planning as Miletus, Piraeus, Olynthos, Rhodes, etc., built according to a single regular principle. The fact that the closest analogies to the regular plan of Chersonesus are found among the urban planning programs directly related to the activities of Hippodamus of Miletus or carried out in the key of his theoretical and practical recommendations directly indicates that Chersonesus belongs to the best examples of urban planning art of the classical era, united by the Hippodamus school.

Yu. G., Shcheglov A. N. Obrazovanie territorialnogo Khersonessskogo gosudarstva [Formation of the territorial Chersonese State]. Tauric Chersonesos... P. 16.

Zubar. 84 Tauric Chersonesos... P. 17.

Yaylenko V. P. 85 Greek colonization of the VII-III centuries B.C. Moscow, 1982, p. 130.

Shcheglov A. N. [Historical process and character of territorial expansion of in the IV century BC]. Problemy sotsial'no-politicheskogo razvitiya i ideologii [Problems of socio-political development and Ideology]. Uk. soch. P. 326 sl.; Saprykin S. Yu. Internal colonization of the Tauric Chersonese / / VDI. 1994. N 3. About the reality of increasing the population of the Chersonesus polis at the expense of internal resources, about a certain cyclicity of these processes, quite argumentation is recently expressed in the article: Rogov E. Ya. Ekologiya Zapadnogo Kryma v antichnoe vremya [Ecology of the Western Crimea in ancient times]. VDI. 1996. N 1.pp. 83-84.

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The uniqueness of Chersonesos in the history of ancient urban development in the Northern Black Sea region lies primarily in the fact of the existence of an extensive urban development program. Such a long-term program could have been designed specifically for the organization of a territory only recently developed by Greek colonists.

We are aware that the study of ancient Chersonese urban planning at the modern level has only just begun. Our work is sure to raise new questions and, perhaps, identify problems that are still to be solved.


A.V. Buiskikh, M.I. Zolotaryov

The article proposes a reconstruction of an ideal town-planning model of Chersonesus based on modern archaeological research methods. The beginning of regular planning is dated back to mid 4th с. ВС. The metrological unit used here was the Doric foot (0,3265 m). The blocks of houses (75 x 200 feet) consisted of standard buildings (36-37.5 x 40 feet). The basis of the city plan was a net of 605 x 605 feet consisting of 7 blocks and 6 transversal streets. The regular planning implied 4 longitudinal and 6 transversal streets (20 feet wide) running towards the city gates. The ideal model shows that the city was originally designed for 1000 citizens, but a number of kleroi was reserved for the increasing population.


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Buiskikh A.V., Zolotarev M. I., URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF TAURIC CHERSONESOS // Tokyo: Japan (ELIB.JP). Updated: 17.06.2024. URL: (date of access: 13.07.2024).

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