Libmonster ID: JP-1381
Author(s) of the publication: Traister M. Yu.

Yuri Germanovich Vinogradov has always been interested in Sarmatian problems1 . In the last decade, after the discovery of the decree published by him from Mangup and the discovery of a series of unique Sarmatian burials of the first century AD in Ukraine, in the Don region and the Lower Volga region, the problem of the military and political history of the Sarmatians of the first century AD has taken an important place in the work of Yu. G. Vinogradov, on whose initiative the pages of the journal" Bulletin of Ancient History" publications and articles were published within the framework of the international "round table ""Sarmatians of the first century AD: latest discoveries". Among these materials, a prominent place is occupied by the article by Yuri Germanovich himself "An essay on the military and political history of the Sarmatians in the first century AD" (VDI. 1994. N 2. pp. 151-170), many of the provisions and conclusions of which cause a lively discussion among specialists. 2 Yuri Germanovich once told me that ancient historians should contribute to solving the problems of Sarmatian archaeology...

In 1989, an iron knife with a bone handle carved in the form of a figure of a man sitting on a throne was found in the Sarmatian burial of the Krasnogorovka burial ground in the vicinity of Azov, dated to the second half of the I - first half of the II century AD (Fig. 1). The person represented on the handle of the knife has a narrow face, a hooked nose and a long mustache. Its large eyes with prominent rounded eyeballs have deepened pupils. On the forehead is a narrow tiara, the ends of which are tied at the back of the head in a knot in the form of two oval loops, and the expanding ends hang down. The hair above the tiara is shown as drawn straight lines. The face is framed by a lush hairstyle formed by five horizontal waves of hair, and the curls of the hair are transmitted by deep engraved lines. The lower part of the face and the right part of the hairstyle are damaged, but nevertheless there are traces of beard on the left half of the face 3 . First of all, the image of the diadem and the back of the throne on the reverse side of the handle indicates that the handle of the knife from Krasnogorovka is probably a portrait of the Parthian king 4 .

1 See, for example, Vinogradov Yu. G. Two bronze cauldrons with Greek inscriptions from the Sarmatian steppes of the Donbass and Volga region // Antiquities of Eurasia in the Scythian-Sarmatian period, Moscow, 1984, pp. 37-43 = Zwei Bronzekessel mit griechischen Inschriften aus den sarmatischen Steppen des Donbass und der Wolga / / Vinogradov Ju. G. Pontische Studien. Kleine Schriften zur Geschichte und Epigraphik des Schwarzmeerraumes / Hrsg. von Н. Heinen. Mainz, 1997. S. 641-647.

2 See Shchukin M. B. Two replicas: about Farzoi and inscriptions from Mangup, about Tsar Artavasda and burial in Kosik / / VDI. 1995. N 4. pp. 175-179; Skripkin A. S. On the question of the ethnic history of the Sarmatians of the first centuries of our era / / VDI. 1996. N 1. pp. 160-169; Perevalov S. M. On the tribal affiliation of the Sarmatian allies of Iberia in the war of 35 AD: three arguments in favor of the Alans / / VDI. 2000. N 1. pp. 203-210.

Gudimenko I. V. 3 Works of the First Primorsky Archaeological detachment in 1989 // Historical and archaeological research in Azov and on the Lower Don in 1989. Issue 9. Azov, 1990. p. 8. Figs. 1, 4; Guguev V. K. Kobyakovsky Kurgan (On the question of Eastern influences on the culture of the Sarmatians of the first century AD-the beginning of the second century AD) / / VDI. 1992. N 4. p. 127; Guguev V. K., Treister M.Yu. Die Sarmaten. Ein Volk zwischen den grossen Kulturen // Damals. 1994. N 9. S. 40; Treister M.Yu. Sarmatian Treasures of South Russia // Archaeology. Jan-feb. 1997. P. 51.

4 See on the meaning of the diadem in Parthia: Ritter H.-W. Diadem und Konigsherrschaft (Vestigia, 7). Munchen-Berlin, 1965. S. 30, 148; Gall N. von. Beobachtungen zum arsakidischen Diadem und zur parthischen Bildkunst // Istanbuler Mitteilungen. 1969-70. 19/20. S. 299-318; Calmeyer P. Zur Genese altiranischer Motive. IV. 'Personliche Krone' und Diadem // AMI. 1976. N.F. 9. S. 51; Smith R.R.R. Hellenistic Royal Portraits. Oxf., 1988. P. 119; Mathiesen Н.Е. Sculpture in the Parthian Empire. A Study in Chronology. Aarchus, 1992. P. 38.

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Fig. 1. Handle of an ivory knife from a Sarmatian burial near the village. Krasnogorovka

A special study of the images of diadems on Parthian coins was undertaken by X. as a result, von Gall identified the following groups of diadems worn by representatives of the Arsacid dynasty: a) simple, Hellenistic type, cloth armbands, similar to those presented on coins minted from Tiridates I to Orodes I, i.e. before 38 BC; b) fluted ribbons of the type depicted on coins from Pacorus I before Phraates V; c) fluted bands with loops, represented on coins from Vonon I (c. 7-12 BC) to Artabanus V; d) double diadems, which were depicted only on the coins of Khosrow and Vologases IV 5 .

It is obvious that the tiara with horizontal loops belongs to the group" c " according to the classification of von Gall, who assumes that this form is widespread-

Gall von. 5 Beobachtungen... S. 301 ff. Abb. 2. See also Curtis V. S. The Parthian Costume and Headdress / / Das Partherreich. 1998. P. 62-63.

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The wound dates from the reign of Vonon I and exists right up to the end of the Parthian coinage 6 . His point of view seems to be confirmed by the image on the so-called rock relief of Vologez in Bisitun, possibly representing Vologez Sh or IV 7 . As for the time of appearance of tiaras with loops on Arsacid coins, it is necessary to take into account the remark of A. M. Simonett that they appear on the coins of Gotarz I (as defined by the author himself) or Darius (?) (as defined by Sellwood), as well as on the coins of Arshak Ktista (Pacorus I-as defined by Simonett, Oroda II - as defined by Sellwood) 8 . Thus, according to A. M. Simonetta, the considered type of diadems appears between 90 and 70 BC.

Tiaras with horizontal loops on the back of the head can be seen on coins of Parthian kings from Phraatak (c. 2 BC-4 AD) 9 up to later issues (Fig. 2-3). However, the royal portraits with tiaras with loops on the back of the head, depicted on coins starting with Vonon II (c. 51 AD) 10, increasingly depict the tiara 11 . Consequently, we can exclude the portraits of Vologases II (c. 77-80) 12, as well as the later issues of Pacorus II (c. 78-105), which began to be depicted with a tiara of the type presented on the later coins of Vologases II, minted up to 96 AD. 13 In addition, we can exclude from the list of parallels to the image on the handle of a knife from Krasnogorovka portraits of Vologases III presented in his later issues minted between 105 and 147 AD14 (Vologases III minted coins with tiara-wearing portraits in Seleucia between 122 and 146 AD15), as well as portraits of Partamaspat (c. 120 AD), who was also depicted in a tiara16, and Vologda IV (c. 147-191) 17 . Given the dating of the burial complex from Krasnogorovka, there is no need for further chronological comparison.

It is quite obvious that the portrait of Khosrow I (c .109-129), who had a very characteristic hairstyle with curls, which was later fashionable among the Sassanids, can be excluded from the list of parallels.

So, which of the Parthian kings, possible candidates for attribution of the portrait from Krasnogorovka, remains on the list? These are: 1) Phraatak, which is shown on

Gull von. 6 Beobachtungen... S. 306-307; см. также Peck Е.Н. Crown. II. From the Seleucids to the Islamic Conquest // Encyclopaedia Iranica. V. VI. 1993. P. 408.

Mathiesen. 7 Op. cit. P. 55-56, 175-176, N 96; Gall N. von. Der grosse Reliefblock am sog. Partherhang // Bisitun. Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in den Jahren 1963-1967 / Hrzg. W. von Kleiss, P. Calmeyer (Teheraner Forschungen VII). В., 1996. S. 85-88 und Anm. Abb. 1. Taf. 13, 1 .

Simonetta A.M. 8 The Chronology of NW India in the First Century A.D. and its Possible Verification // Numismatica e antichita classiche. 1993. XXII. P. 175. Not. 6; ср. Callatay F. de. Les tetradrachmes d'Orodes II et de Phraate IV. Etude du rythme de leur production monetaire a la lumiere d'une grande trouvaille (Studia Iranica, Cahier 14). P., 1994. P. 45-46. См. о прическе Орода II также: Bernard P. Plutarque et la coiffure des Parthes et des nomades // Journal des savants. 1980. P. 78.

Sellwood D. 9 An Introduction to the Coinage of Parthia. 2nd ed. L., 1980. N 58/1: the tetradrachm of the coinage of Seleucia; idem. Parthian Coins // САН. V. 3. Pt. I. P. 292-293. PI. 6, 4; Peck. Op. cit. P. 409. Fig. 20.

Sellwood. 10 An Introduction... N 67; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 295. PI. 7, 8; Alram М. Stand und Aufgaben der arsakidischen Numismatik // Das Partherreich. 1998. S. 385. Taf. 3, 31.

11 See also Gall von. Beobachtungen... S. 299-301. Abb. 1; Curtis. Op. cit. P. 63. PI. 1 d.

Sellwood. 12 An Introduction... N 72; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 295. PI. 8, 1-2; idem. New Parthian Coin Types // The Numismatic Chronicle. 1989. N 149. P. 165. PI. 42, 3- 4; Curtis. Op. cit. P. 63.

Sellwood. 13 An Introduction... N 77; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 296. PI. 8, 8 ; idem. New Parthian Coin Types. P. 166-167. Тур. 6. PI. 42, 6-8; Alram. Stand... S. 385. Taf. 3, 33.

Sellwood. 14 An Introduction... N 79; idem. Parthian Coins. PI. 9, 1 .

Sellwood. 15 An Introduction... P. 243; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 296.

Sellwood. 16 An Introduction... N 81; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 296. PI. 8, 11 .

Sellwood. 17 An Introduction ... Tour. 84; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 297. PI. 9, 3-4; idem. A Die Count for a Group of Parthian Drachms // Studies in Greek Numismatics in Memory of Martin Jessop Price / Ed. R. Ashton and S. Hurter. L., 1998. P. 317; Alram. Stand... S. 385. Taf. 3, 34.

Gall von. 18 Beobachtungen... S. 307-308. PI. 59, 5 ; Sellwood. An Introduction... N 80; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 296. PI. 8. 10; Peck. Op. cit. P. 409. Fig. 17.

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coins minted after his marriage to his mother, Muse 19; 2) Orodes III, c. 6 AD 20; 3) Vonon I, c. 8-12 AD 21; 4) Artabanus II, c. 10-38 AD 22 ; 5) Vardan I, c. 40-45 AD 23 6) Gotarz II, c. 40-51 AD 24; 7) Vologases I, c. 51-78 AD 25; 8) Vardanes II, c. 55-58 AD 26; 9) Pacorus II, c. 78-105 AD 27; 10) Artabanes III, c. 80-81 AD 28 11) Vologases III, c. 105-147 AD-portraits of the early period before 123 AD 29; 12) Mithridates IV, c .140 AD 30 , and 13) the unknown king, c. 140 AD 31.

As noted above, in the portrait from Krasnogorovka, the hair above the tiara is shown in vertical lines and the wavy hairstyle framing the face is presented in the form of five rows of curls. In many of the portraits of the Parthian kings mentioned above, the hair above the diadem is curled in the form of rings (see coins of Phraatacus, Orodes II, Vonon I, Artabanus II, Vardanus I, Gotarzus II, early issues of Vologases I32, Vardanus II, Artabanus III, some issues of Pacorus II33). However, ringlets are usually represented on portraits depicted on large denominations such as tetradrachmas, while on drachmas or on bronze coins, the hair above the diadem is straight (on coins of Phraatak, Vonon I, Artaban II, Vardan I, Gotarz II, Vardan II, Artaban III).

On both tetradrachms and drachmas, the hair above the diadem is shown as straight lines in portraits of the following kings: on late issues of Artabanus II 34, late issues of Vologases I minted after the suppression of the revolt of Vardanes 35; early issues of Pacorus II 36 and coins minted after his submission to Artabanus III in 81 AD 37 , early issues of Vologases III, and finally on coins minted by Mithridates IV and an unknown king around 140 AD, the latter portraits being represented only by images on drachmas and bronze coins.

Sellwood. 19 An Introduction... N 58.

20 Ibid. N 59.

21 Ibid. N 60; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 293. PI. 6, 8; idem. Parthian Gold Coins // Proceedings of the XIth Intern. Numismatic Congress. Brussels, Sept. 8-13, 1991. V. 1 / Ed. by T. Hackens, G. Moucharte et al. Louvain-la-Neuve, 1993. P. 295-298. Fig. 2, 1-2, 4-9.

Sellwood. 22 An Introduction... N 61-63; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 293-294. PI. 6, 9-12 ; 7, 1 ; Mitchiner М. Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian Coinage. V. 5. Establishment of the Scythians in Afghanistan and Pakistan. London, 1976. P. 429. Тур. 647; Koch Н. A Hoard of Coins from Eastern Parthia (American Numismatic Society, Numismatic Notes and Monographs, N 165). New York-Malibu, 1990. PI. 1, 12-21: Alram М. Die Geschichte Irans von den Achaimeniden bis zu den Arsakiden (550 v. Chr. - 224 n. Chr.) // Cat. Vienna 1996. S. 95. Abb. 76; idem. Stand... S. 385. Taf. 3, 29 .

Sellwood. 23 An Introduction... N 64; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 294. PI. 7, 3-4; Mitchiner. Op, cit. Tour. 648.

Sellwood. 24 An Introduction... N 65-66; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 294-295. PI. 7, 5-7 ; Alram. Stand... S. 385. Taf. 3, 30.

Sellwood. 25 An Introduction ... Tour. 68; 70-71; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 295. PI. 7, 11-13; Alram. Stand... S.385. Taf. 3, 32.

Sellwood. 26 An Introduction... N 69; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 295. PI. 7, 9-10.

Idem. 27 An Introduction... N 73, 75, 76; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 295-296. PI. 8, 3 , 6-7.

Idem. 28 An Introduction... N 74; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 295-296. PI. 8, 4-5; idem. New Parthian Coin Types. P. 166. Тур. 5. PI. 42, 5 .

Idem. 29 An Introduction... N 78; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 296. PI. 8, 9; idem. A Die Count... P. 317-320. PI. 68; Koch. Op. cit. PI. 2-4.

Sellwood. 30 An Introduction... N 82; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 297. PI. 8, 12; idem. A Die Count... P. 319.

Idem. 31 An Introduction... N 83; idem. Parthian Coins. P. 297. PI. 9, 2 .

Idem. 32 An Introduction... N 68.

33 Ibid. N 76.

34 Ibid. N 63.

35 Ibid. N 70-71; idem. New Parthian Coin Types. P. 164. Тур. 2. PI. 42, 2 .

36 Ibid. N 73.

37 Ibid. N 75.

38 Ibid. N 78; idem. A Die Count... P. 317 ff.

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Figure 2-3. Some types of Arsacid coins (by Sellwood, 1980)

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Figure 3.

Taking into account the marked regularity of the image of the hairstyle above the diadem on different coin denominations and the given date of burial, we can with a high degree of probability exclude from the list of parallels to the portrait from Krasnogorovka of the last two tsars. So, in the list of possible candidates for attribution of the portrait from Krasnogorovka remain: Artaban II and Vologez I (late portraits), Pacorus II and Vologez II (early portraits).

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On the tetradrachms of Artaban II 39, where the portrait of the king en face is presented, the ends of the tiara ribbons are visible, which hang over the shoulders, but such ties are absent in the portrait under consideration. It is probably also necessary to exclude from further consideration the early portraits of Pacorus II , 40 in which the king is depicted beardless and, which is especially significant in the context of our study, without a mustache. In later editions of the portrait of Pacorus II, the king is depicted with a small beard, 41 but in tetradrachs, his portrait is without a mustache .42 The hair in the portraits of Vologases III, placed on his early coin issues, is either arranged in three rows of curls, as on drachmas 43, or not separated, as on his bronze coins 44 .

Thus, the portraits on the coins of Vologda I, who is considered to be the son of Artaban II, minted after the suppression of the revolt of Vardan (c. 55-58 AD) 45, are perhaps the only ones that correspond to the characteristic features of the portrait on the handle of a knife from Krasnogorovka 46 . In the portraits of Vologda I, we see a tiara with loops-ties, the hair above the tiara has a vertical parting, his magnificent hairstyle is arranged in the form of five horizontal rows of curls, and the tsar is depicted with a mustache and beard. The coins on which these portraits are minted date from between 60 and 77 AD .47

The only difference is the image of horizontal stripes on the diadem - however, this is a characteristic feature of all the above coin images, except for the portraits on the tetradrachms of Vardan II 48 . At the same time, a smooth tiara with loops is represented on a bronze bust located in Berlin and depicting an unknown Parthian king or hero 49 . A smooth diadem adorns the forehead of the so-called "Parthian prince" in a relief from Khalchayan, and based on a comparison with coin images, he was recently identified with Vardan I 50 . Smooth diadems are also found on relatively late monuments of Parthian sculpture, in particular, on the marble statue of Sanatruk from Hatra, which was identified with either the images of King Sanatruk I or Sanatruk II, and dated, respectively,

39 Ibid. N 63/1-5.

40 Ibid. N 73.

41 Ibid. N 75.

42 Ibid. N 75/1-5.

43 Ibid. N 75/1-5.

44 Ibid. N 78/9-25.

45 The series of tetradrachmas of Vologases V, minted in Seleucia, was replaced between November 55 and June 58 by the coins of another king with youthful features, who is usually considered to be Vardan II, the son of Vardan I (Sellwood. An Introduction... P. 225 f; Koch. Op. cit. P. 55-56; Schottky М. Parther, Meder und Hyrkaner. Eine Untersuchung der dynastischen und geographischen Verpflechtungen im Iran des 1. Jhs. n. Chr. // AMI. 1991. Bd 24. S. 119. Anm. 411 с библиографией; idem. Quellen zur Geschichte von Media Atropatene und Hyrkanien in parthischer Zeit // Das Partherreich. 1998. S. 446-447, 464-465.

Sellwood. 46 An Introduction... N 70-71; idem. Parthian Coins. PI. 7, 11-13.

Idem. 47 Parthian Coins. P. 295; cf. idem. New Parthian Coin Types. P. 164: "Dated Parthian coins indicate that the reign of Vologases ended around 77 AD." Cf., however, Frye R.N. The History of Ancient Iran. Munchen, 1984. P. 241: "The date of the end of the reign of Vologases, however, is not clear, since numismatic data indicate his conflict with Pacorus, whose relationship with Vologases is not clear, while the most recent coins of Vologeses date from 78 or 79 AD, and the coins of Pacorus date from about the same time" R. Fry (Op. cit. p. 241. Not. 129) challenges Sellwood's hypothesis that there were two kings bearing the same name, Vologases I (51-78) and Vologases II (77-80). See also Schottky on the early editions of the Vologases tetradrachmas. Quellen zur Geschichte... S. 465. Anm. 137-138.

Sellwood. 48 An Introduction... N 69/1-9; idem. Parthian Coins. PI. 7, 9.

Gall von. 49 Beobachtungen... S. 306-307. Taf. 59, 6-7; Ghirshman R. Iran. Parther und Sasaniden. Munchen, 1962. Abb. 108. The forms of ties on the bust from Berlin and the portrait in question differ. The loops on the Berlin bust are tied separately: Gall von. Beobachtungen... S. 306-307. Taf. 59, 7 ; idem. Der grosse Reliefblock... S. 85. Anm. 2.

Groene F. 50 A new hypothesis on the dating of the Khalchayan reliefs / / VDI. 2000. N 2. pp. 130-135.

Ghirshman. 51 Op. cit. Abb. 105; Mathiesen. Op. cit. P. 214-215; N 215. Fig. 82; Peck. Op. cit. P. 410.

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either the end of the second or the beginning of the third century A.D. 52 The diadem tied on the king's head is decorated with an eagle figure with outstretched wings above the forehead, and the face is framed by two tufts of hair with spiral curls.

Much closer to the portrait from Krasnogorovka is the image of a man on a terracotta uniform from Ashur, located in the Near East Museum of Berlin (VA 5802). Figures that could be made in the form would have a height of 7.3 cm. The man depicted on this uniform has his face framed with hair arranged in five horizontal rows, which is very similar to the hairstyle of the portrait from Krasnogorovka. He also has a pointed beard and mustache. E. Klengel-Brandt compares this form with sculptures from Hatra and attributes the image either as a royal portrait (Parthian king or king of Hatra), or as a portrait of a high-ranking person. The researcher dates the form to the first-third centuries AD and does not find an answer to the question whether it was made in Ashur or brought there. 53 H. E. Metiesen dates the form to the beginning of the third century AD. 54 In this connection, it is interesting to note that, according to M. G. Raschke, Parthian kings were revered in such centers as Ashur 55 .

The hairstyle, arranged in similar horizontal rows, is also found in images of horsemen and an archer engraved on mother-of-pearl plates found in a burial site in Shami and usually dated to the second-first centuries BC.56 The following detail is of interest. On the handle of the knife from Krasnogorovka, you can see the remains of the tsar's damaged left hand, which is raised. Similar positions, except for the right hand, are noted on sculptures from Hatra 57, as well as on the mentioned terracotta form from Ashur 58 .

The interpretation of the eyes in Parthian sculpture from the first to the middle of the second century AD is generally unknown, 59 but in later works of Parthian sculpture (c. 150-225 AD), the iris was often depicted as an embedded circle , sometimes in combination with a recess for the pupil, 60 as in the portrait in question. The handle of the knife from Krasnogorovka shows a high-backed version of the throne, which is known from the images on the reverse of Parthian coins and on the relief from Susa, dated 215 AD. e. The backs of these thrones usually reached the height of the neck of kings 61 . However, the shape of the back of the throne on the handle under consideration is different from that shown on the relief from Susa. In this regard, the following observations made by X are of interest. von Gallom. The famous golden throne captured by Trajan during the Parthian campaign of 116 AD in Ctesiphon was designated as sella (SHA: vit. Hadr. XIII 8; vit. Ant. Pii IX. 7), or a throne without a back 62 . Such thrones, so-called bench-type thrones or banquet seats, are depicted in reliefs from Tang-e-Sarwak, 63 as well as in later works of Sasanian art .64 At the same time, the details of the throne found in the residence of the Parthian king Mithridates I in Old Nisa, made of ivory, allow us to reconstruct the throne in accordance with

Mathiesen. 52 Op. cit. P. 73 ff.

Klengel-Brandt Е. 53 Drei parthische Ftirstenbilder aus Assur // Mitteilungen des Instituts fur Orientforschung. 1966. Jg. 11. Ht 3. S. 341-342. Abb. 3; eadern. Die Terrakotten aus Assur im Vorderasiatischen Museum Berlin. Berlin, 1978. S. 76. N 444. Taf. 13.

Mathiesen. 54 Op. cit. P. 194.

Raschke M.G. 55 New Studies in the Roman Commerce with the East // Aufstieg und Niedergang der Romischen Welt. Bd II. 9. 2. B.-N. Y., 1978. P. 822. Not. 730.

Chirshman. 56 Op. cit. S. 109. Abb. 125.

Mathiesen. 57 Op. cit. N 198-202, 206-208, 215.

58 Ibid. P. 194-195. N 167. Fig. 47.

59 Ibid. P. 28.

60 Ibid. P. 38.

Gall H. von. 61 Entwicklung und Gestalt des Thrones im vorislamischen Iran / AMI. 1971. N.F. Bd 4. S. 207. Taf. 36, /.

62 Ibid. S. 207-208.

63 Ibid. S. 208. Abb 1.

64 Ibid. S. 213-218; Harper P.O. Thrones and Enthronement Scenes in Sasanian Art// Iran. 1979. 17. P. 49-64.

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images on coins, i.e. with a high back and crossbars at shoulder level 65 . It is interesting that two such crossbars are clearly shown on the reverse side of the handle of the knife from Krasnogorovka (Fig. 1).

This monument is not the first discovery of a Parthian carved bone in the Northern Black Sea region. It is worth recalling the finds of bone plates of rithons in Olbia, which can be dated, most likely, to the end of the II-first quarter of the III century AD. According to V. G. Lukonin, one of the plates depicts the Parthian king of kings sitting on the throne 66 . The portrait on a silver phalar found in northern Siberia and in the Hermitage collection has been identified by scholars with images of Parthian kings who ruled in the first and second third of the first century BC (from Gotarz I to Orodes II) or in the second century AD67 Finds of Parthian coins are known both in the Southern Urals 68 and in the Western Urals. in the Caucasus. For example, in Colchis, Parthian coins circulated in small quantities along with Roman and Bosporan coins .69 In Iberia and Eastern Armenia, Parthian coins are much more numerous, and the most common types evoked local imitations and were in circulation for 70 centuries . Especially noteworthy is the indication of an Arshakid coin on a funeral wreath discovered in 1873 in a rich military burial in Kerch. The indication was probably made from a coin of Phraates III 71 .

65 See details of the throne from Nisa: Pugachenkova G. A. The throne of Mithridates I from the Parthian Nisa / / VDI. 1969. N 1. pp. 163-167. Fig. 1-5; Bernard P. Sieges et lits en ivoire d'epoque hellenistique en Asie Centrale / / Syria. 1970. 47. P. 329-332. Fig. 1-5. See also about the excavations of Staraya Nisa: Pilipko V. N. Staraya Nisa. Building with a square hall, Moscow, 1996.

66 See OAK for 1906 St. Petersburg, 1909. p. 41. Fig. 41; Pharmakovsky B. Archaologische Funde im Jahre 1906. Sudrussland / / Archaologischer Anzeiger. 1907. Sp. 147-148. Abb. 16; idem. Olbia. Fouilles et trouvailles 1901-1908 (Extrait du Bulletin de la Commision Imperiale archeologique. Fasc. 33, 103-137). SPb, 1909. P. 32-33. Fig. 61; Lukonin V.G. Persia II (Archaeologia Mundi). Cleveland - New York, 1967. PI. 2 - 4; Bellin de Ballu Е. Olbia. Cite antique du littoral nord de la Mer Noire. Leiden, 1972. P. 181. PI. LXXXII; Mathiesen. Op. cit. P. 187, N 151 with bibliography; Cat. Vienna 1996. S. 397. N 73 (Е. Zejmal); Olbrycht М. Die Kulture der Steppengebiete und die Beziehungen zwischen Nomaden und der Sesshaften Bevolkerung (der Arsakidische Iran und die Nomadenvolker) // Das Partherreich. 1998. S. 29.

67 See, for example. Kinzhalov R. V. Serebryannaya plastina s izobrazheniem parfyanskogo tsarya [Silver plate with the image of the Parthian king]. SA. 1959. N 2. p. 197 sl. Fig. 1 - 2; p. 202 (Gotarz I); Lukonin. Op. cit. P1. 18 (II century A.D.); Treasures of the Ob region / Edited by B. Marshak, V. Kramarovsky. SPb., 1996. pp. 46-47. N 1 (Eds. Zeimalus: 80-30 BC, or Gotarz I, or Phraates III, or Mithridates III, or Orodes II); Cat. Vienna 1996. S. 396, N 69 (e. Zeimal: Phraates III or Orodes II); M. Olbricht (Op. cit. S. 29. Anm. 145) mentions only the attribution of R. V. Kinzhalov. E. Zeimal refers to another find of a bronze medallion in northern Siberia, which is unpublished. Mounds of the Sargat culture of the II-IV centuries AD in the Omsk region have recently yielded finds of silver Bactrian falars and objects in the gold-turquoise animal style (Matyushchenko V. I., Tataurova L. V. Sidorovka burial ground in the Omsk Irtysh region. Novosibirsk, 1997. pp. 141-142. Fig. 18-20; pp. 148-149. Fig. 27-29).

Olbrycht. 68 Op. cit. S. 28-29.

Golenko K. V. 69 Monetary circulation of Colchis in Roman times. L., 1964. pp. 87-89. N 83-88a.

Raschke. 70 Op. cit. P. 877. Not. 926.

71 OAK for 1873 p. XV; OAK for 1875 p. 22-23; N 13; Rostowzew M. I. Skythien und der Bosporus. V., 1931. P. 209; Maksimova M. I. Bosporan stone-cutting workshop / / SA. 1957. N 4. P. 76. Note. 7; Gajdukevic V.F. Das Bosporanische Reich. Berlin-Amsterdam, 1971. S. 427. Anm. 177. The practice of decorating diadems and funeral wreaths with coin indications is quite typical for the Northern Black Sea region and the Bosporan Kingdom, in particular, especially since the first century BC. Individual finds of gold foil indications are also known (see, for example, Minns E. N. Scythians and Greeks. Cambr., 1913. P. 390; Rostowzew. Skythien... S. 210 ff.; Treister M.Yu., Zuhar V.M. A Gold Medallion representing Fortuna and Glycon from the Necropolis of Chersonesus // Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia. 1994. V. 1. Pt 3. P. 344-345). At the same time, this practice is also attested in Parthia (see, for example, the indication of a bronze coin of Trajan found in a burial in Nineveh: Curtis J. Parthian Gold from Nineveh // The British Museum Yearbook 1. The Classical Tradition. L., 1976. P. 56. Fig. 105; P. 59, 63, N 22). Curiously, the necropolis of Panticapaeum is dominated by indications of coins from other Greek cities or Roman coins. "Was the production of indications from local coins a bad sign or was it forbidden," M. I. Rostovtsev asked himself (Skythien ... S. 210).

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Sculptural knife handles made of bone were common in Achaemenid times, although they were usually made either in the form of proto-animals or depicted animals in a leap; the latter are often made in flat relief .72 Carved bone handles were used on swords in the Roman Empire, although only written evidence has been preserved. 73 Sculptural knife handles were shaped like animals (lions, dogs) or griffins. However, there are also known images of armed gladiators 74 . Noteworthy is a late antique ivory and bronze handle with a figure of Dionysus standing with panthers, kept in Dumbarton Oaks 75 . It is assumed that in the Hellenistic period, for example in Egypt under the Ptolemies, ivory carving was a royal monopoly and carvers worked only in the royal workshops .76 Numerous finds of ivory products in special rooms of the royal palaces of the Kushan kings (in the summer residence) in Begram, near Kabul77, and in Old Nisa-the capital of the founder of the Parthian state Mithridates I (including details of ivory thrones) 78 , allow us to suggest that the portrait of Vologda I in ivory could also have been made in the royal Parthian workshop. It is quite obvious that such an item as a knife with an elaborately carved handle with a portrait of a Parthian king, could hardly be a trade item. Rather, it was a royal gift or a war trophy. As a parallel to the royal portrait on the handle of the weapon made of ivory, the portrait of Alexander the Great on the handle of the mahaira of the III century BC from the Oxa temple in Southern Tajikistan is mentioned 79 . There is strong evidence to support the interpretation of some rare imported items from Sarmatian burials as temple gifts. Thus, according to B. A. Raev, metal vessels from the mound are an archaeological confirmation of the military raids of the Alans

72 См., например, Stucky R.A. Achamenidische Holzer und Elfenbeine aus Agypten und Vorderasien im Louvre // Antike Kunst. 1985. Jg. 28. S. 19-20, 29-31. N 23-41. Taf. 9-11.

Barnett R.D. 73 Ancient Ivories in the Middle East und Adjacent Countries (Qedem. Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 14). Jerusalem, 1982. P. 69.

Buitron-Oliver D., Oliver A. 74 Greek, Etruscan and Roman Ivories // Randall R.H.Jr. Masterpieces of Ivory from the Walters Art Gallery. New York-Baltimore, 1985. P. 60. N 101, 103. See, for example, the gladiator-shaped handle from the Johns Hopkins University Archaeological Collection, Baltimore: Cutler A. Late Antique and Byzantine Ivory Carving. Aldershot-Brookfield, 1998. Ch. 2. P. 6, 8. Fig. 8-9.

Culfer A. 75 The Craft of Ivory: Sources, Techniques, and Uses in the Mediterranean World, A.D. 200-1400. Washington, 1985. P. 13-14. Fig. 15.

Barnett. 76 Op. cit. P. 66. Cf. archaeological evidence for the manufacture of ivory products in Alexandria: Rodziewicz Е. Archaeological Evidence of Bone and Ivory Carvings in Alexandria // Commerce et artisanat. 1998. P. 135-158. It is interesting to note in this connection a series of ivory rings with portraits of Ptolemaic queens, for example, Arsinoe II: see, for example, Marangou L. Ptolemaische Fingerringe aus Bein / / Athenische Mitteilungen. 1971. 86. S. 163-171; Reeder E. D. Hellenistic Art in the Walters Art Gallery. Baltimore, 1988. N 113; Spier J. Ancient Gems and Finger Rings. Catalogue of the Collections. The J. Paul Getty Museum. Malibu, 1992. P. 49. N 91; Boussac M.-F., Starukis P. La collection de bags, intailles et camees greco-romains du Musee d'Alexandrie / / Commerce et artisanat. 1998. P. 160-161. Fig. 1-2. See also on the use of ivory in the Hellenistic world: Buitron-Oliver, Oliver. Op. cit. P. 57-58.

Barnett. 77 Op. cit. P. 67-68; see also a recent detailed publication: Mehendale S. Bergram. New Perspectives on the Ivory and Bone Carvings. Diss. University of California, Berkeley. Berkeley. 1997 (especially p. 60-159).

Lukonin. 78 Op. cit. P. 61-62. PI. 5-7; Pugachenkova. Uk. op. pp. 161-171; Bernard. Sieges et lits en ivoire... P. 329-332; Masson М.Е., Pugachenkova G.A. The Parthian Rhytons of Nisa. Florence, 1982; Barnett. Op. cit. P. 66-67; Cat. Vienna 1996. S. 396, N 68; Invernizzi A. Parthian Nisa. New Lines of Research // Das Partherreich. 1998. P.47-48.

Pichikyan I. R. 79 Alexander-Hercules (the Greco - Bactrian portrait of the great commander) / / SA. 1983. N 1. pp. 80-90; on. Culture of Bactria. Achaemenid and Hellenistic periods. Moscow, 1991. pp. 183-189. Fig. 32. See also other ivory portraits attributed as portraits of Alexander the Great: Miller M. With J. Alexander the Great in Munich and Athens //The Ancient World. 1997. XXVIII. 1. P. 47-50.

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Khokhlach, dating from the 5th-4th centuries BC to the end of the 1st century AD, including silver vessels of the 5th-3rd centuries BC made in Eastern workshops; and vessels made in Italian workshops of the early Imperial era, as well as products of provincial workshops of the end of the 1st century AD. They may have originally been stored in a temple or sanctuary, most likely in Transcaucasia .80 The discovery of a phial in Zubovsky mound No. 1 in the Kuban region with a dedication to the temple of Apollo in Phasis is also usually associated with the Alanian raids .81 However, the burial site in which the phial was found probably dates back to the first half of the first century A.D. 82, and thus the appearance of the phial from the temple in Colchis can hardly be attributed to the campaigns of the Alans in the 70s A.D.

We know of two episodes that fit into the chronological framework under consideration, when the Sarmatians may have had contact with the Parthian empire or adjacent territories, 83 although some researchers believe that there was only one episode in 75 AD. 84 The first of these dates back to 72 AD, when the Alans, who lived in the Tanais region, and The Maeotians made a trek through the passes of the Caucasus to Transcaucasia (Media and Armenia). This campaign is known to us thanks to the story of Josephus (De bello lud. 7. 244-251) 85, as well as reports from medieval Georgian chronicles 86 and Movses Khorenatsi's " History of Armenia "(2.50) 87 . The second campaign took place in 75 AD (Suet. Domit. 2.2; Dio Cass. 65.15.3) 88 . Both campaigns caused heavy losses in Armenia and Media Atropatene. Vespasian was aware of these raids, but despite the pleas of Vologases for help (Suet. Domit. 2.5; Dio Cass. 65,15. 3), did nothing against the Alans. " 89

Raev B.A. 80 Roman Imports in the Lower Don Basin (BAR Intern, ser. 278). Oxf., 1986. P. 67-68.

Rostovtzeff M.I. 81 Iranians and Greeks in South Russia. Oxf., 1922. P. 128; Raev. Op. cit. P. 68. См. о фиале: Tsetskhladze G.R. The Silver Phiale Mesomphalos from the Kuban (Northern Caucasus) // Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 1994. 13. P. 199-216; idem. Die Griechen in der Kolchis (historisch- archaologischer Abrip). Amsterdam, 1998. S. 9-10 (with bibliography).

Treister M.Yu., Yatsenko S.A. 82 About the Centres of Manufacture of Certain Series of Horse-Harness Roundels in 'Gold- Turquoise Animal Style' of the 1st - 2nd Centuries AD // Silk Road Art and Archaeology. 1997/98. 5. P. 57. Not. 70.

83 See with bibliography: Dabrowa E. Roman Policy in Transcaucasia from Pompey to Domitian // The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire. Proceedings of a Colloquium Held at Ankara in September 1988. Pt I / Ed. D.H. French and C.S. Lightfoot. Oxf., 1989. P. 70-71 (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph N 11; British Archaeological Reports Intern, ser. 555(i)). Oxf., 1989. P. 70- 71.

Halfmann Н. 84 Die Alanen und die romische Ostpolitik unter Vespasian // Epigraphica Anatolica. 1986. 8. S. 40, 42.

85 See also Taubler E. Zur Geschichte der Alanen / / Klio. 1909. 9. S. 18-20; Rostovtzeff. Iranians and Greeks... P. 118; idem. The Sarmatae and Parthians // САН. V. XI. Cambr., 1936. P. 95; Debevoise N.C. A Political History of Parthia. Chicago, 1938. P. 200-201; Colpe C. Die Arsakiden bei Josephus // Josephus-Studien. (Jntersuchungen zu Josephus, dem antiken Judentum und dem Neuen Testament / Ed.O. Betz., K. Haacker., М. Hengel. Gottingen, 1974. S. 107; Bosworth A.B. Arrian and the Alani // Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. 1977. V. 81. P. 233; Dabrowa E. Le limes anatolien et la frontiere caucasienne au temps des Flaviens // Klio. 1980. 62. P. 386. Not. 52; Raev. Op. cit. P. 68; Schottky. Farther, Meder und Hyrkaner... S.I 22-126; idem. Quellen zur Geschichte ... S. 448-449; Olbrycht. Op. cit. S. 32; Gabuev T. A. Early history of the Alans. Vladikavkaz, 1999, pp. 31-46.

Mroveli L. 86 Zhizn kartliiskikh tsarey [The Life of the Kartli Kings]. Translated by G. Chulaya, Moscow, 1979, p. 33. See also Gabuev. Decree, Op. pp. 33-37.

87 See also Schottky. Quellen zur Geschichte ... S. 455; Gabuev. Uk. soch. pp. 40-46. See on the reflection of the history of Parthia in the work of Movses Khorenatsi: Kettenhofen E. Die Arsakiden in den armenischen Quellen / / Das Partherreich 1998. S. 325-353.

Bowersock G.W. 88 Syria under Vespasian // Journal of Roman Studies. 1973. 63. P. 135; Bosworth A.B. Vespasian's Reorganization of the North-East Frontier // Antichton. 1976. 10. P. 69. Not. 44; Dabrowa Е. La politique de l'Etat parthe a l'egard de Rome - d'Artaban II a Vologuse I (c. 11-е. 79 de n.e.) et les facteurs qui la condiotionnaient. Crakow, 1983. P. 165-166; Rajak T. The Parthians in Josephus // Das Partherreich 1998. P. 310.

Rostovtzeff. 89 The Sarmatae... P. Ill; Syme R. Flavian Wars and Frontiers // САН. V. XI. P. 143; Bosworth. Arrian and the Alani. P. 224; Frye. Op. cit. P. 240; Dabrowa. Roman Policy in Transcaucasia... P. 71; Jones B.W. The Emperor Domitian. L.-N. Y., 1992. P. 19, 157; Campbell В. War and Diplomacy: Rome and Parthia, 31 ВС - AD 235 // War and Society in the Roman World / Ed. J. Rich, G. Shipley. L.-N. Y., 1993. P. 233; Southern P. Domitian. Tragic Tyrant. Bloomington - Indianapolis, 1997. P. 29.

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Thus, a knife with a handle with a portrait of Vologda I from Krasnogorovka is a unique archaeological confirmation of the Sarmatian raids in Transcaucasia. As noted above, it could be either a royal gift or a war trophy. Given the context of the burial from Krasnogorovka, which included the usual inventory and no other items made of precious materials were found in it, it can be assumed that we are talking about a military trophy captured by a Sarmatian warrior during a raid in Transcaucasia. Originally, the knife may have belonged to a Parthian nobleman or ally of the Parthians, or it may have been an offering to a temple or sanctuary. The monument in question is not only a unique confirmation of contacts (possibly mediated) between the Parthian Kingdom and nomads, but also a valuable source of royal iconography and propaganda.


M.Yu. Treister

The author tries to identify the person portrayed on the ebony handle of a knife found in 1989 in a Sarmatian grave near the village of Krasnogorovka not far from Azov. Some characteristic traits, the diadem with horizontal loops, the hair-style and the throne make the author conclude that it was a Parthian king who was portrayed on the handle, and a detailed comparison with portraits on Arsakids coins enables him to suppose that this is Vologases I and to date the portrait to the period between 60 and 70 AD.

The reasons why this object was found in a ordinary Sarmatian grave are also considered. Obviously, it must have been taken as a war- trophy during an Alanian invasion of the Caucasus in 72 or 75 AD. Originally the knife could belong to a noble Parthian or an ally, or it could have been offered to a temple or a sanctuary.


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