Libmonster ID: JP-1438

The literature on the history of Mongolia in the 20th century is vast and diverse. The bulk of the collection consists of collective and individual works by Russian and Mongolian authors created at different times and dealing with various aspects of the history of the country's political, economic, social and cultural development, its international position and external relations, mainly at certain historical stages of the past century. Much of the relevant literature has been published in China and Japan, but much less in the West, which is due to Mongolia's isolation from the Western world until the 1960s.

Chronologically, all this historical literature can be considered in three periods: the 1900s-1920s - the period of the "awakening of Asia", the entry of Mongolia into the XX century and the restoration of Mongolian statehood; the 1920s-1980s-the period of the existence of the USSR and the MNR; the 1990s-the beginning of the XXI century.

Historiography of Mongolia in the three quarters of the 20th century it is already quite well studied and covered, which cannot be said about modern literature. Therefore, the main attention in this review is paid to this literature, especially since it marks the beginning of a qualitatively new stage in the study of the history of Mongolia, including the XX century.


In Russia, the initial stage of studying the history of Mongolia is reflected in the books and articles of representatives of the faculty, military and civil administration-B. M. Guryev, M. I. Bogolepov, L. N. Sobolev, Yu. Kushelev, A. M. Benningsen, A.V. Baranov, A. P. Boloban and others, as well as in the works of researchers of Central Asia - M. N. Abramovich. Przhevalsky, V. M. Pevtsov, V. I. Roborovsky, G. N. Potanin, P. K. Kozlov and others. This literature is first fully reflected in the first Soviet bibliography on the Mongolian People's Republic, compiled by the KUTV bibliographer E. N. Yakovleva and published in the series of works of the Scientific Research Association for the Study of National and Colonial Problems (Issue XVIII): "Bibliography of the Mongolian People's Republic. Systematized index of books and articles in Russian" (Moscow, 1985). In the bibliography, all books and articles are described de viso and cover the period from the beginning of the XVIII century to the 1930s.

Although this literature was mainly of a historical-descriptive and economic-applied nature, it generally gave an objective picture of the situation in the country at the end of the XIX-beginning of the XX century. A description and analysis of the corresponding works of Russian authors is given in the works of N. P. Shastina: "History of the Study of the Mongolian People's Republic (A short Essay)" (in the collection of articles "The Mongolian People's Republic", Moscow, 1952); "Mongolian Studies" (Moscow, 1967); Yu. V. Kuzmin: "Mongolian and Uriankhai issues in public life". thoughts of Russia (end of the XIX-30s of the XX century)" (Irkutsk, 1996), "Mongolia and the" Mongolian question " in the socio-political thought of Russia (end of the XIX-30s of the XX century) "(Irkutsk, 1997), " Russia and Mongolia at the Turn of the Century: Russian- Mongolian relations of the late XIX-early XX centuries in Russian studies. Textbook "(Irkutsk, 2002); in the collection " Russian Mongolian scholars of the XVIII-early XX centuries "(Ulan-Ude, 1997) and in the work of D. B. Ulymzhiev " Mongolian studies in Russia in the second half of the XIX-early XX centuries. St. Petersburg School of Mongol Studies "(Ulan-Ude, 1997).

As for the Mongolian historical literature of this period, we can name only 11 volumes of "Zarligaar togtooson Mongol ulsyn ishstir "("The Highly approved shastra of the Mongolian state") - the universal " History of Mongolia "(1918 - 1919), compiled by a large team of historians (Tserendev, Gombotseren, Galsandonoy, Sh. Damdin, Sumya, Dashnam,

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Togtoh, Namsraijav), as well as the Tibetan-language works of the most important Mongolian historian of that time, Sh. Damdin (1867-1937): "A Chronological treatise", "A Brief History of Buddhism in Mongolia" and, of course, his main historical work - "Altan devter" ("Golden Book"). All these works were written chronically, in the spirit of traditional Mongolian historiography of the XVII-XVIII centuries, with the only difference that they fragmentally dealt with some political events of the early XX century, ideas of the revival of Mongolian statehood, the role of bogdogegen in the life of the country, etc.

To a much greater extent, these issues were addressed in the articles of Buryat and Mongolian enlighteners Ts. Zhamtsarano (1881-1931), E. D. Rinchino (1888-1932), Badrakhbatar (1849-1922), B. Dorj (1873-1943), D. Bodo (1885-1922), published in the pages of the newspaper "Niyslal khureeniy sonin bichig " ("Capital News") and the magazine " Shine tol "("New mirror").

In general, despite its archaic nature, historical works from the time of the Bogdogegen monarchy remain a valuable but, alas, still insufficiently studied source on the history of public thought and culture in Mongolia at that time. See about this work: III. Bira "On the" Golden Book "of Sh. Damdin (Ulaanbaatar, 1964), L. P. Popova" Public Thought of Mongolia in the era of the "Awakening of Asia" "(Moscow, 1987), as well as sections on the culture of the Mongols of 1911-1919, written by Sh. Bira, in the one-volume "History of the MNR" (3rd ed., reprint. Moscow, 1983) and in the third volume of the three-volume "History of the MNR "("BUgd Nayromdah Mongol Ard Ulsyn Tuukh. Гутгаар ботъ (Нэн шинэ Ye)" (Улан-Батор, 1969, далее - БНМАУ-ын тYYx...).

In the West, there were no special works on the history of Mongolia at the beginning of the XX century and the theocratic monarchy at that time, except for several articles by the Finnish Altaist and Mongolist G. Ramstedt (1873-1950) about his impressions of his stay and work in Urga in 1912, published in the newspaper "Helsingin Sanjamat" (2.07.1912; 26.04.1913; 4.05.1913). Об этом см.: P. Aalto "P. G. J. Ramstedt and the Mongolian Independence Movement" (Ulaanbaatar, 1973. Stadia Mongolica. T. 1(3), facs 1-17) and G. Ramstedt " Seven Journeys-Eastward. 1898-1912 "(Bloomington, 1978), as well as articles by the American diplomat and scholar W. Rockhill (1854-1914) "The Question of Outer Mongolia" in The Journal of the The American Asiatic Association (1914, No. 4), his monograph The Dalai Lamas of Lhasa and their Relations With the Manchu Emperors of China 1644-1908 (Leiden, 1910), and a descriptive book by the American preacher I. P. Shirokov. Curtain "The Mongols. A History with a Foreword by Theodore Roosevelt" (Boston, 1908).

Western Mongolian studies had not yet spun off from sinology, and therefore the history of Mongolia at the beginning of the twentieth century was only indirectly touched upon in the historical works of sinologists who were contemporaries of the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the formation of the republican system in China, in connection with the history of the "Mongolian question". General descriptions of Mongolia in those years are contained in the two-volume book of the English naturalist D. Carruthers "Unknown Mongolia. A Record of Travel and Exploration in North Western Mongolia and Dzungaria. With a Foreword by Earl Curson of Kedleston " (Vol. 1-2. L., 1913 - 1914), the first volume of which was translated into Russian ("Unknown Mongolia. Vol. 1. Uriankhai Region "(Fri., 1914) ; in the materials of the Prussian expeditions of philologists A. Grunwedal (1856-1935) and G. Huth (1867-1906) in 1902 - 1903, A. von Lecoq (1860 - 1930) and A. Grunwedal in 1904 - 1905 in Turfan, the Belgian geographer R. Verbruet in 1905 and 1909, as well as in travel essays of various Westerners who visited or passed through Mongolia. For Prussian expeditions, see R. Verbreigge "Excursion on Mongolian" (Brussels, 1913), W. Heissig"Mongolistic an Deutschen Universitaten" (Wiesbaden, 1968). For essays on the travels of Western scholars in Mongolia, see M. I. Golman's work " Studying the history of Mongolia in the West (XIII-mid-XX centuries) "(Moscow, 1988).

In general, philological, ethnographic, and Mediaeval trends completely dominated Western Mongolistics until the 1920s.


The beginning of the study of the history of Mongolia of the XX century in the Soviet Union was laid by I. M. Maisky's book " Modern Mongolia "(Irkutsk, 1921; 2nd ed., ispr. and add. " Mongolia on the Eve of the Revolution "(Moscow, 1959), containing an analysis of the Mongolian society on the eve of the revolution of 1921; works by A. A. Kalinnikov " Revolutionary Mongolia" (Moscow, 1925) and "The National Revolutionary Movement in Mongolia" (Moscow, 1926), as well as analytical articles by S. Natsov (Shoizhelov) and A. D. Simukov on various aspects of the domestic political and economic state of the country. See also: Natsov S. Mongolia and Imperialism (Truth and Falsehood about Mongolia) / / Life of Buryatia (1926, N 4-6); On-

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The national liberation movement in Mongolia / / Kommunisticheskiy mezhdunarodal (1926. N 12. N 9 (58))Zhizn Buryatii (1928. N 10 - 12); Ten years of the Mongolian Revolution // Vestnik Instituta kul'tury (1931. N 3(27)); Shoizhelov S. [Life of Buryatia (1928. N 10-12); Ten years of the Mongolian Revolution]. National Liberation movement of Mongolia / / New East (Book 6); Mongolia and Japanese imperialism / / New East (Books 8-9); Mongolia and Tsarist Russia / / New East (Books 13-14); Simukov A.D. About nomads and pastures of Mongolia // Agriculture of Mongolia (1920. N 2(15)); Cattle breeding of the MNR in connection with the geographical landscapes of the country // Economy of Mongolia (1931. N 1 (25)).

In the 1920s and 1930s, the first general essays about the Mongolian People's Republic, rarely mentioned in our time, were published not by Mongol scholars, but by journalists, historians, and public figures: V. Vilensky-Sibiryakov's " Modern Mongolia "(Moscow-Kharkiv, 1925) ; M. V. Zaitsev's "A Brief Sketch of Mongolia" (Harbin, 1925). Elma "Our Neighbor - Mongolia "(M.-L., 1928) , B. Semenov "Mongolia" (M.-L., 1928); S. Viktorov and N. Khalkhin "The Mongolian People's Republic" (M., 1936); B. Berlin "The Mongolian People's Republic" (M., 1941), etc. The descriptive and essay traditions laid down by these publications were multiplied by a large number of pamphlets and books about the MNR of a journalistic and general information nature that appeared after the end of World War II.

History, as such, is a "small" literature, except for the historical and documentary book by G. Kungurov and I. Sorokovikov " The Arat Revolution. Historical Essay "(Irkutsk, 1957), was only a passing reference; its main purpose was to spread general information about the MNR and promote its achievements on the path of non-capitalist development. See, for example, the works of V. A. Maslennikov "The Mongolian People's Republic on the Path to Socialism" (Moscow, 1951) and "Modern Mongolia" (Moscow, 1961); D. B. Ulymzhieva: "The Mongolian People's Republic is building Socialism" (Ulan-Ude, 1959); V. I. Vasilyeva "40 Years of the People's Revolution in Mongolia" (Moscow, 1961); M. S. Dzhunusova " Fraternal Mongolia. To the 40th Anniversary of the Mongolian People's Republic "(Frunze, 1961); V. I. Pisarev "The Mongolian People's Republic on the Way to Completing the construction of socialism" (Moscow, 1964); Mazaev "Transformed Steppes of Mongolia" (Moscow, 1966); A. N. Katerinich "Decades Equal to Centuries" (Moscow, 1966); B. Ye. Nizovtsev's " 40 Years of People's Mongolia "(Moscow, 1961);" On Mongolia "(Moscow, 1966);" 50 Years of the People's Revolution in Mongolia " (Moscow, 1971).

In the post-war years, scientific literature was also created, covering almost all the main aspects of Mongolia's historical development from the beginning of the XX century to the 1990s. In the Soviet Union, it was mainly represented by problem-themed studies with a historical bias of older and middle-generation Mongolists: S. D. Dylykov, I. Ya. Zlatkin, P. P. Staritsyna, A. T. Yakimov, G. I. Mikhailov, B. D. Tsybikov, G. I. Zayatuev, K. M. Gerasimova, N. T. Vargin, A. M. Shishkin, and others. Pechnikov, E. M. Darevskaya, S. K. Roshchin, G. S. Matveeva (Yaskina), L. M. Gataullina, F. S. Tsaplin, T. A. Yakimova, D. B. Ulymzhinev, V. V. Graivoronsky, N. L. Zhukovskaya, E. V. Boikova, A. A. Gerbova, K. N. Yatskovskaya and others. The works of these and other authors are most fully reflected in the bibliographic collections: "Mongol Sudlalyn Olon ulsyn nom zui. International Bibliography on Mongolian Studies. IV. Russia (1946-1958) " (comp. by E. V. Boykova. Ulaanbaatar, 2002; hereinafter-IBMS); " MNR. Bibliography of book and magazine literature in Russian (1935-1951) "(compiled by V. P. Tyulyaeva, Moscow, 1953), " Bibliography of the Mongolian People's Republic. Books and articles in Russian (1951-1961)" (comp. R. L. Baldaev, N. N. Vasiliev, Moscow, 1963), " Bibliography on Soviet Mongolian Studies (1980-1986) "(compiled by L. N. Popov, Z. V. Shevernina, K. N. Yatskovskaya, Moscow, 1987).

In the MNR, the first steps in covering the history of their fatherland of the XX century were made in the 1930s-1940s in the works of historians with pre-revolutionary experience: Ch. Bat-Ochira "Mongol ulsyn ulamzhlan irsniyg temdeglesen bichig" ("Notes on the Origin and Development of Mongolia") (Ulaanbaatar, 1928); L. Dendev "Mongol Ulsyn ulamzhlan irsniyg temdeglesen bichig" ("Notes on the origin and development of Mongolia") (Ulaanbaatar, 1928). tovch mYYx " ("A Brief History of Mongolia") (Ulaanbaatar, 1934); H. Maksarkhurts "Mongol ulsyn shine garsan mYYx" ("A New History of Mongolia") (Ulaanbaatar, 1994); G. Navaannamzhil "Gadaad Mongolyn autonomiyn ueyin mYYx" ("History of the Autonomous Period of Outer Mongolia") (Ulaanbaatar, 1927, manuscript); H. Choibalsan, L. Losol, G. Damid " Mongol ardyn Undseniy khuvsgalyn tovch mYYx "("A brief history of the Mongolian people's National Revolution") (Ulaanbaatar, 1934, published in the USSR in 1952, as the work of H. Choibalsan); A. Amar's "Mongol Ishine mYYx" ("A New History of Mongolia") (Ulaanbaatar, 1989); S. Natsagdorj's "Sukhbaataryn am'dral" ("The Life of Sukha Bator") (Ulaanbaatar, 1943; English translation in O. Lattimore's book " Nationalism and Revolution "(N. Y., 1955).

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This was followed by works on the history of the 1921 revolution in Mongolia, social transformations, state building, religious policy, foreign policy relations and the like by such leading historians as B. Shirendib, S. Natsagdorj, M. Sanjdorj, B. Tudev, D. Gongor, S. Sandag, A. Minis, S. Purevzhav, N. Ishzhamts, B. Puntsagnorov B. Beldoo, S. Damdinsuren, L. Bat - Ochir, S. Dash, B. Sumya, B. Tseden, A. Maamu and others; on the history of the MPRP, MRSM, party building, political and organizational activities of the party, its international relations; on the problems of ideology, theory and practice of the "non-capitalist path of development" - S. Norovsambu, D. Dashzhamts, Ch. Zhugder, T. Sodnomdargi, C. Balhaa-zhav, U. Kambar, K. Zardykhan, S. Purev; on various aspects of the development of the national economy and economic policy of the MNR-P. Luvsandorj, T. Namzhim, H. Dashdondov, D. Zagasbaldan, C. Gurbadam, P. Tsagaankhu, D. Moebu, N. Dangasuren, Ts. Zhasray. See the bibliography of these works in the collections: "Mongol sudlalyn olon ulsyn nom zui. IBMS. II. Mongolia" (comp. Ch.Narantuya. Улан-Батор, 2002), "Works by Mongolian Historians (1960 - 1974). Annotated Bibliography in English and Russian" (Сотр. by Ts. Ishdorj, D. Dorj, Trsl. by Ts. Tsendsuren. Ulaanbaatar, 1975); "Bibliography of works of Mongolian historians (1975-1980)" (comp. Ts.Ishdorj, D. Batbayar. Ulaanbaatar, 1980), " Works of Mongolian Philosophers "(comp. by G. Rinchin. Ulaanbaatar, 1976); "Mongol ediin zasagchdyn zarim bUteeliin tovch khuraanguin emkhtgal. 1965-1975" ("Annotated bibliography of some works of MNR economists") (Ulaanbaatar, 1976, in Mongolian and Russian).

In the West, the study of the history of 20th-century Mongolia began in the 1950s and soon became a whole field in Western Mongolistics. The works of its pioneers-O. Lattimore, J. Frithers, A. Whiting, P. Tan, V. Ballis, R. Rupen, G. Murphy, and then Ch. They focused mainly on the political history of the MNR, its international status, problems of nationalism, and relations between the MNR and the USSR and the Republic of China. The most complete bibliography of books and articles by Western authors published in English, French and German from the 18th century to 1977 in all areas of Mongolian studies is the capital work of Prof. Western Washington University (Bellingham) G. Schwartz "Bibliotheca Mongolica. Pt. 1. Works in English, French and German "(Western Washington, 1978). The book was the first and last part of an unrealized project to compile a bibliography on Mongolian studies in all languages of the world in 4 parts. G. Schwartz was also the main coordinator and one of the two editors (the other was Sh. Bira) of the first volume of the International Bibliography on Mongolian Studies (Ulaanbaatar, 1997), which contains a list of Mongolian literature from 1946-1997, published in Australia, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, England, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Korea, Poland, Sweden, Turkey and Vietnam. См. также: Knoepfmacher H. Outer Mongolia: a Selection of References // Bulletin of the New York Public Library (1944. Vol. 48. N 10); The Bibliography of the Mongolian People's Republic / Prepared by the Far Eastern and Russian Institute of University of Washington for Behavior Science Bibliographies (New Haven, 1956); Rupen R. A. Mongols of the Twentieth Century. Pt. 2. Bibliography (Bloomington, 1964); Sinor D. Introduction a Vetude de I'Eurasie centrale (Wiesbaden, 1963); Barkmann U. Bibliographic der wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zur Mongolistic in Deutschland (Hamburg, 2002).

Despite the abundance and variety of literature created by Mongolian scholars during the period under review, there were relatively few general studies on the history of 20th-century Mongolia. First of all, these are the relevant parts of the Soviet-Mongolian one-volume History of the MNR, which has passed through three editions (revised and supplemented) in Russian and Mongolian (1954, 1967-1, 1983) and one edition in English" History of the Mongolian People's Republic "(1973), 2 as well as the third volume of the Mongolian History of the Mongolian People's Republic. three-volume "History of the Mongolian People's Republic", translated and published in the USA, collective work of Mongolian social scientists "Essays on the history of the Mongolian People's Republic", monographs by I. Ya. Zlatkin " Essays on the new and modern history of Mongolia "(Moscow, 1957; 1st ed.: "The Mongolian People's Republic is a country of people's Democracy", Moscow, 1950), R. Rupen "The Mongols of the XX th Century". Pt. 1 "(Bloomington, 1964), C. Bowden's " The Modern History of Mongolia "(L., 1968) and the collective work of German scientists "Die Mongolen. Beitrage zur ihrer Geschichte und Kultur" (Hrsg. von. M. Weicrs unter Mitwirkung von V. Veit und W. Heissig. Darmstadt 1986).

1 Rec. by M. I. Golman, see: Peoples of Asia and Africa. 1968. N 5.

2 Rec. by M. I. Golman, see: Social Sciences, Moscow, 1974, Vol. 5 (18).

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This category also includes collective Soviet-Mongolian works: "History of Soviet-Mongolian Relations "(Moscow, 1971); "Non-capitalist path of development and experience of the MNR" (Moscow, 1971); " Essays on the history of culture of the MNR "(Ulan-Ude, 1971); "History of the Socialist Economy of the MNR" (Moscow,1971). 1987); the work of S. K. Roshchin, N. T. Vargan and G. S. Matveeva " Essays on the economy of the MNR "(Moscow, 1969) and author's monographs: B. Shirendib "History of the Mongolian People's Revolution of 1921" (Moscow, 1971); Sh. Sandaga " Foreign Policy relations of Mongolia. 1850-1919. Book 1. The elimination of Manchu domination and the declaration of independence of Mongolia. The monarchy of Bogdo Khan. 1850-1911 "(Ulaanbaatar, 1971); M. Sanzhdorzha "History of the People's State" (Ulaanbaatar, 1974); Ch. N. Mikhailova " Cultural construction in the MNR. Historical essay" (Moscow, 1967); G. S. Matveeva: "Creation of the material and technical base of socialism in the MNR "(Moscow, 1978), " Mongolian Revolutionary Youth Union. History and Modernity" (Moscow, 1981) and "The Mongolian People's Republic in the system of Socialist Economic integration" (Moscow, 1987). We should also mention O. Lattimore's book " Nationalism and Revolution in Mongolia "(N.Y., 1955)3, "Nomads and Commissioners: Mongolia Revisited" (N.Y., 1962), the first of which is devoted to substantiating the author's theory of satellites on the example of the MNR, the second, despite the catchy title, is essentially an essay on the political history of the country in the 1920s - 1960s, and R. Roulen's work "Outer Mongolian Nationalism 1900- 1919 "(Washington, 1954), " The Mongolian People's Republic "(Stanford, 1966)", " How Mongolia is Really Ruled? The Political History of MPR1900 - 1976" (Stanford, 1979).

The historiography of Mongolia, created during the existence of the USSR and the MNR, was reviewed and evaluated in the monographs " Social Sciences in the MNR "(Moscow, 1977) and "Soviet Mongolian Studies (1917 - 1987)" (Moscow, 1987). In the first section, the sections by L. M. Gataullina "Studying the modern history of Mongolia. Individual and collective works" and G. S. Yaskina and V. V. Oknyansky " Study of Economics. Problems and main directions". The second paper was prepared for the V International Congress of Mongol Studies. In it, I will mention the introductory article by I. Ya. Zlatkin, sections by L. M. Gataullina "Research on the problems of the modern history of the MNR", G. S. Matveeva "Economic theory in the MNR at the present stage", and V. V. Graivoronsky "Research in the field of agricultural economics", which give a fairly complete idea of the directions and content of the works of Mongolian social scientists in the period under review period. The monograph "Social Sciences in the MNR" was generally highly appreciated by the general scientific community of the two countries and was published in Mongolia: "БНМАУ-ын нийгмийн шинжлэхухаан" (Улан-Батор, 1981). See also: Golman M. I. Russkaya i sovetskaya literatura po istorii mongolov [Russian and Soviet literature on the history of the Mongols] / / Istoriya MNR (Moscow, 1983); Mongol studies in the USSR / / IAMS Bulletin (1992. N1, 2 (9, 10)); Ulymzhiev D. B., Chimitdorzhiev Sh. B. Mongol studies in Buryatia / / IAMS Bulletin (1992. N 1, 2 (9, 10)); Longid S. BNMAU-yn mYYx bichlagiin toim (Review of the MNR Historiography) (Ulaanbaatar, 1971); Natsagdorj Sh. Cooperation of Mongolian and Soviet social scientists / / NAA (1983. N 4); Natsagdorj Sh., Ishjamts N. Historical science in the MNR // Soviet Oriental Studies (1956. N 2); Sanjadorj M. Achievements of Mongolian Historical Studies during the Past 20 years / / Mongolian Studies (1981-1982. N 1); Social Sciences in the MNR. Ref. collection Issues 1 - 3 (Ulaanbaatar, 1980- 1982); MNR: aktual'nye problemy obshchestvennogo razvitiya. Ref. sb. Vyp.1, 2 (Moscow, 1981, 1985); Ulymzhiev D. B. Razvitie istoricheskoi nauki v MNR [Development of Historical science in the MNR: actual problems of social development]. Issue 2 (Ulan-Ude, 1965); Boikova E. V. Nekotorye problemy nekapitalisticheskogo razvitiya v trudakh mongol'skikh uchenykh [Some problems of non-capitalist development in the works of Mongolian scientists]. History and Economics (Moscow, 1993).

Estimates of Western works on the history of Mongolia of this period are given in: Zlatkin I. Y. Owen Lattimore as a historian of the East / / Against colonialism (Moscow, 1960); The concept of the history of nomadic peoples A. Toynbee and historical reality // Modern historiography of the countries of the Foreign East. Problemy sotsial'no-politicheskogo razvitiya (Moscow, 1971); Oyuungerel L. Bor'ba protiv bourgeoisnykh i revisionistskikh kontseptsii istoricheskogo razvitiya MNR (Avtoref. kand. dis. Moscow, 1984); Khulan Kh. Kritika burzhuaznykh kontseptsii vneshnoi politiki MNR (Avtoref. kand. dis. Moscow, 1986); Golman M. I. Neodeishshaya istoriya MNR v bourzhuaznoy istoriografii i publicistike [The newest history of the MNR in bourgeois Historiography and Publicistics]. Kratkiej posty Instituta narodov Azii (Issue 85, Moscow, 1964); Problemy neodeishshey istorii MNR v bourzhuaznoy istoriografii SSHA (Moscow, 1970). Western authors on relations between Russia and Mongolia in the XX century.//Russia and Mongolia. A new look at the history of mutual relations

3 Rec. by I. Ya. Zlatkina, see: Sovetskoe vostokovedenie [Soviet Oriental Studies]. 1957. N 4.

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in the XX century (Moscow, 2001); Bira Sh. [Rec.on:] R. Rulen. Mongolian People's Republic // Modern Mongolia (1968. N 2).

In the USSR, the MNR, and the so - called socialist camp countries, these assessments of Soviet and Mongolian literature were generally positive, often laudatory, while those of Western "bourgeois" literature were mostly negative, often even critical. In turn, the West paid Soviet and Mongolian authors "in the same coin", considering Marxist historical science in the Soviet Union and in the MNR "a servant of the party and the state." Such assessments were organic for their time, because they reflected, in my opinion, the main vice of both Soviet, Mongolian, and Western historiography of the 1920s - 1980s-excessive ideologization, which, alas, was inevitable in the conditions of a bipolar world and a general confrontation between the two systems.

Naturally, in the light of the present day, many previous characteristics of this historiography are subject to revision and correction. In this connection, the question arises: does the historical literature of the period of the existence of the USSR and the MNR retain its scientific significance? The answer can be unambiguous: yes, it does. This literature is rich in a huge amount of factual material, is based on the principles of historicism and dialectics, which remain important tools for learning history, records the most important milestones and events in the life of the Mongolian people, reflects the level of public consciousness and historical knowledge in this period and, no less remarkable, the sincere errors and mistakes of historians. At the same time, the dogmatic adherence to rigid schemes and postulates of Marxism-Leninism, the ideas of proletarian internationalism, a purely one-sided class approach to complex phenomena and processes, doctrinarianism, nachetnichestvo, opportunism, inherent in a significant part of researchers, hindered strictly scientific objective analysis and made their work largely tendentious. The origins of tendentiousness, it seems to me, lie in the methodological guidelines that were imposed by the academic leadership of the CPSU and the MPRP.

In principle, the Western literature on the MPR was also biased, because most of its representatives during this period, although they did not know the party's dictatorship and censorship, were very infected with the viruses of anti-communism and anti-Sovietism, which did not allow them to fully objectively assess the processes taking place in the MPR.

This general tendency in the historiography of the 1920s-1980s found its concentrated expression in two diametrically opposed concepts of the historical path traversed by the Mongolian people during this period, i.e., in essence, the concepts of the history of the MNR proper, which can be summarized in the following form.

The essence of the Soviet-Mongolian concept was to justify the regularity of the People's Revolution of 1921, the steady and irreversible progress of the MNR along the path of social progress, strengthening its original independence and sovereignty, democracy and improving the people's welfare. The achievements of "non-capitalist development" and the construction of socialism were primarily ensured by internal factors: the free, selfless work and creativity of the masses of the people and the wise leadership of the MPRP, which skillfully implemented the general laws of socialist construction in the specific conditions of Mongolia, the independent and constructive foreign and domestic policy of the MNR government, as well as, of course, fraternal union, friendship and with the help of the Soviet Union, the help of other socialist countries, and the support of the world proletariat represented by the international communist and labor movement, of which the MPRP was an organic part. All this allegedly fully corresponded to the national interests and aspirations of the Mongolian people, led them along the road of progress and prosperity to a bright future, and made the MNR a classic model-a model for developing countries and countries of "socialist orientation".

The Western concept was based on the decisive role of external factors in the history of the Mongolian People's Republic, the influence of which, first of all, Russia and China, determined all the main turns of the Mongolian fate in the last century until the 1990s and even deprived it of an independent future. The rivalry and struggle for Mongolia between Russia and China, the USSR and the PRC turned the MNR into the first Soviet political satellite with elements of self-government, which played an important geopolitical and military-strategic role as a buffer and agricultural and raw materials appendage to the USSR economy. Not only in foreign, but also in domestic policy, the MPRP and MNR always followed in the wake of the policies of the CPSU and the USSR, mechanically copied the Soviet experience of transformation, the Soviet command-administrative and repressive methods of management and ideological orientation.-

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work of the population, up to planting and inflating the cult of personality. A certain modernization of Mongolian society was achieved at the cost of incredibly large human, material and spiritual losses, the destruction of traditional foundations, cultural heritage, especially writing, and the gradual collapse of nomadism. In general, the social experiment to transfer nomadic society to the rails of socialism, Russification and Sovietization threatened the Mongols with a complete loss of national identity, condemned them to vegetationism and isolation from the world. As a result, by 1990 Mongolia had become a backward, agrarian country with a low standard of living and an authoritarian regime.

The main propositions of both the first-apologetic - and the second - nihilistic-concepts did not stand the test of time and led to the fact that in the works of their adherents, the history of Mongolia in the XX century appears as a whole one-sided, one-dimensional and thus does not correspond to reality.

MODERN LITERATURE (1990s-early 20th century)

The search for and reflection of real history based on new methodological approaches, on the basis of the first open archival collections and documents is a distinctive feature of the new modern layer of historical literature on Mongolia, which has been forming since the early 1990s. Fundamental changes in the world, the end of the century and the millennium - the time of summing up the results, democratic transformations in Mongolia and Russia have generated particular interest They have brought the dramatic Mongolian history of the past century into the spotlight from the perspective of modernity, brought it into the focus of attention of the world's Mongolian scholars, and stimulated a kind of boom in their book production. In a relatively short time, both in Mongolia and in Russia, to a lesser extent in the West, original collective and individual works were published, usually of a generalizing nature, which opened up (in the Russian Federation and Mongolia) the process of de-ideologized, objective coverage of the last 100 years in the life of the Mongols and the revision of obsolete concepts.

First of all, these are works that present new views on the general history of Mongolia in the XX century and its individual periods and problems. For example, the work performed by a group of employees of the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia under the direction of M. Sanjdorji, "Khordugaar zUUni Mongol. mUUhiin toym" ("Mongolia of the twentieth century. Historical Essay") (Ulaanbaatar, 1995) and a work in which 19 well-known historians, sociologists and political scientists took part under the supervision of Acad. Zh. Boldbaatar (editor-in-chief), Ts. Batbayar and Zh. Баасанжава "Монгол улсын тYYх (mYYx, онол, арга зуйн суудлууд). Их сургууль, коллежийн багш, оюутан, эх тУУхээ сонирхсон суудлагчдад зориулав" ("История Монголии. Problems of History, theory and methodology") (Ulaanbaatar, 1996). As can be seen from the title, it is intended for teachers and students of universities, colleges and for people who study and are interested in Russian history, but, in my opinion, the book goes beyond the textbook and is a kind of one-volume book that concentrates on the current attitude of Mongolian social scientists to their historical past and present.

This category also includes S. K. Roshchin's monograph "Political History of Mongolia (1921-1940)" (Moscow, 1999), which he defended as a doctoral dissertation, and W. D. Barkman's monograph "Geschichte der Mongolei oder Die "Mongolische Frage". Die Mongolen auf ihrem Weg zum cigenen Nationalstaat" (Bonn, 1999). He also wrote many in-depth articles on this and other historical topics in Mongolia (see: "International Bibliography of Mongolia" I...); for example: "Landnutzung und historische Rammenbedingungen in der Ausseren Mongolie (Mongolischen Volksrepublik 1691 - 1940) "(Osaka, 2000); " The Revival of Lamaism in Mongolia"("Central Asian Survey", 1997. Vol. 1). It can be argued that at present W. D. Barkmann is a leading German expert on the recent history and current situation of Mongolia.

In addition, this is the first volume of the two-volume book " XX Zuuni Mongol. NUUdel suudal Garz olz "("Mongols of the XX century. Nomadism and settlement. Losses and achievements") (Ulaanbaatar, 1996). And of course, the largest in terms of coverage of the material, the original fruit of modern historical thought of Mongolia, is the five-volume "History of Mongolia", the fifth volume of which is devoted entirely to the XX century - "Mongol Ulsyn TYYx Tavdugaar Bot (XX zuun)" (Ulaanbaatar, 2003). The work was carried out by a large number of scientists (18 people) edited by J. Boldbaabar, B. Shirendib and M. Sanjdorja. I would like to note that this fundamental work is a great achievement of Mongolian science. The last major work of Moscow Mongol scholars, published in the series " History of the Countries of the East.

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XX century", published by the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, - " History of Mongolia. XX century" (Moscow, 2007). The listed works are written in a problem-thematic plan, are saturated with new, documented factual material, adhere to a new periodization and, in many respects, a new interpretation of historical events.

A small but very informative monograph by Ts. is also of a general historical nature. Batbayara "Modern Mongolia. A Concise History "(Ulaanbaatar, 1996), which has passed two editions in English, and T. Namjim's works "Mongolyn ert ba edUgee" ("The Past and Present of Mongolia") (Ulaanbaatar, 1996)4 and " The Economy of Mongolia. From Traditional Times to the Present" (Bloomington, 2002).

The development of the topic of Russian-Mongolian-Chinese relations is an integral part of the study of the entire complex of international relations of Mongolia, its international status and foreign policy in the XX century, which has been one of the main directions of historical research in Mongol studies of Russia, Mongolia and the West over the past decade. In Russia, this direction is represented by the monographs of S. G. Luzyanin " Russia-Mongolia-China in the first half of the XX century . Political relations in 1911-1946" (Moscow, 2000); E. A. Belova " Russia and Mongolia (1911-1919) "(Moscow, 1999); V. Ts. Ganzhurova " Russia-Mongolia. History, Problems, modernity" (Ulan-Ude, 1997); Yu. V. Kuzmina "Mongolia and the" Mongolian question " in the socio-political thought of Russia (late XIX-30s of XX century)" (Irkutsk, 1997); E. M. Darevskoy " Siberia and Mongolia. Essays on Russian-Mongolian relations at the end of the XIX - beginning of the XX century" (Irkutsk, 1994); a generalizing study by G. S. Yaskina "Mongolia and the outside World" (Moscow, 2002), as well as the work of E. V. Boikova "Relations of the MNR with capitalist and developing countries. 1960-1970-ies" (Moscow, 1982) and O. A. Dzhagaeva "Russia and Mongolia: an essay on the history of mutual relations in the last quarter of the XX century "(Moscow, 2003).

In Mongolia, the monographs of S. Tserenpil "Tavan uchraa" ("Five Meetings") (Ulaanbaatar, 1996) and L. Bagzzhava " Mongol-hyatadyn hariltsaa. 1949-1999 " ("Mongolian-Chinese relations. 1949-1999)" (Ulaanbaatar, 1999), collective work "1990-ed ony olon ulsyn hariltsaany khandlaguud ba Mongol Uls-ih gurnuudiyn harshshaa (Trends in international Relations in the 1990s and Mongolia's relations with the Great Powers)" (Ulaanbaatar, 1995), book by L. Khashbat "Mongolia's International Status: Historical and Legal Aspects "(Ulaanbaatar, 2001). See also: IBMS. II. Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar, 2002). A new page in the coverage of the role and significance of external factors in Mongolian history was opened by the innovative monograph of Ts. Batbayara " Mongol ba Yapon XX zuuni ehni hagast (Mongol uls toriyn gadaad hariltsyan UUhees) (Mongolia and Japan in the first half of the XX century From the History of Mongolia's Foreign Policy Relations)" (Ulaanbaatar, 1998; Russian translation. Ulan-Ude, 2002). In fact, this is the first history in Mongolian historiography of Mongol-Japanese relations over a half-century period, which covers many "white spots" based on the introduction of previously unknown documentary data into circulation.

The first works on Mongolian-American, Mongolian-French relations, cooperation between Mongolia and the Republic of Korea belong to M. Khurmetkhan "Mongol-American relations and American Studies" (Ulaanbaatar, 2003); L. Oyungerel "Mongol Frantsyn hariltsaa (XIII zuunaas edUUgee Khurtal") ("Mongol-French relations since the 13th century. until now") (Ulaanbaatar, 2003); Shin Sang Kyun and L. Haisandai " Relations and Cooperation Between the Republic of Korea and Mongolia. 1990 - 2002" (Ulaanbaatar, 2003).

It should be emphasized that foreign policy relations are considered by Mongolian scholars in close connection with the history of restoring, preserving and strengthening the Mongolian statehood, ensuring the independence and sovereignty of the country. This issue is also one of the leading areas of historical research in Mongolia. In this regard, the collective work "Mongol tusgaar togtnol ba oros, hyatadyn huchin zuyl (Independence of Mongolia and Russian and Chinese factors)" (Ulaanbaatar, 1999) is of great scientific interest, where B. Boldoo analyzed the policy of Russia and China in relation to the Bogdo-Gegen monarchy, S. Damdinsuren-in relation to the MNR L. Khaisandai - the significance of these factors in the external environment of modern Mongolia, as well as recent works by B. Lhamsuren " Mongol gadaad orchin, toriyn tusgaar togtnol "("External environment and state Independence of Mongolia) "(Ulaanbaatar, 1995), B. Shirandyba "Mongol ulsyn tvriyn tusgaar togtnol sergen mand-

4 Rec. by V. V. Graivoronsky, see: Vostok (Oriens). 2003. N 4.

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сан" ("Восстановление независимости Монголии)" (Улан-Батор, 1996); Хэрээд Л. Жамсрана "Монголын тврийн тусгаар тогтнолын сэргэлт (Возрождение государственной независимости Монголии)" (Улан-Батор, 1997); С. Дамдинсурэна "Монголын тусгаар тогтнол: эрин зууны баталгаажилт" ("Независимость Монголии: век утверждения") (Улан-Батор, 2001); О. Батсайхана "Монголын тусгаар тогтнол 6а Хятад, Орос, монгол гурван улсын 1915 оны Хиагтын гэрээ (1911 - 1916)" ("Независимость Монголии и тройственный русско-монголо-китайский Кяхтинский договор 1915 г.)" (Улан-Батор, 2002); Ж. Бора "Монголын тусгаар тогтнолын гэрэл суудэр (Light and Shadows of Mongolia's Independence) (Ulaanbaatar, 1996).

I think that only in the context of democratic transformations did it become possible to create such joint collections of articles as " Russia and Mongolia: a new view on relations in the XX century "(Moscow, 2000) - the first joint work of 13 Russian and Mongolian scientists in recent years and " Mongol khatadyn khariltsia: niigem-ediin zasgiin zarim asuudal (XXZU) 90-ed.) " ("Mongolian-Chinese relations: some socio-economic problems. 90-ies of XX century") (Ulaanbaatar, 2001) - the result of cooperation between Mongolian and Chinese social scientists.

The international status of Mongolia and its relations with powerful neighbors and with Japan in the XX century have always been in the center of attention of Western Mongolian scholars and international political scientists (see: Golman M. I. Western authors on relations between Russia and Mongolia in the XX century / / Russia and Mongolia-a new look at relations in the XX century (Moscow, 2000)). The 1990s were not an exception, with the significant difference that, having got rid of the bogeyman of communism, researchers consider these problems much more objectively and deeply than before, especially those that relate to the current stage of Mongolian history since the 1990s. The following works can serve as evidence of this: Muller M., Muller S. Erben eines Weltreiches. Die mongolischen Volker und Gebiete im XX Jahrhundert. China-Mongolei-Russland (Bonn, 1992); Seiden J. The Mongol Impact on Russia from the 13th Century to the Present. Mongol Contribution to the Political Institutions of Moscow, Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. Vol. 1 - 2 (Georgetown University, 1992); Lax C. Die Mongolei im strategischen Kraftefeld Asien (Baden, 1995); Barkmann U. Die Beziehungen Zwisehen der Mongolei undder VR China (1952 - 1996). Versuch einer Anamnese (Hamburg, 2001); Zur Gesehichte des russisehmon-golisehen Abkommens von 1912 // Asien-Africa-Latin America (1990. N 4); Zu den Beziehungen Zwisehen der Mongolei und der USSR / Russland in den Jahren 1989 - 1993 // Asien. Zeitsehrift Fur Politik, Wirschaft undKultur (1995. N 57), as well as articles by American, English and German scientists: Bruce A. Elleman. Secret Sino-Soviet Negotiations on Outer Mongolia 1918 - 1925 // Pacific Affairs (Vol. 66. 1993 - 1994, N 4); Rossaby M. Mongolia: a New Opening // Current History (Vol. 91. 1992. N 565); Hayer P. "The Great Game": Mongolia between Russia and China // The Mongolian Journal of International Affairs (1997. N 4); Ginsburg T. Political Reform in Mongolia. Between Russia and China // Asian Survey (1995. Vol. 35. N 5); Sanders A. Mongolia: Striking a Balance // World Today (Vol. 50. 1994. N 6); Haining Th. The Beer and the Dragon: the Uneasy Red Fellows. A Cautionary Talk of Russian and Chinese Influences on Mongolian History // Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1996. Third Series. Vol. 3); Ziegler Ch. E. Russia in the Asia -Pacific: A Mayor Power or Minor Participant? // Asian Survey (1994. Vol. 34. N 6).

However, the views of these authors on the international reputation of Mongolia as a protectorate of the Russian Empire, and then, until the end of the 1980s, as a Soviet satellite, did not change dramatically. As for modern Mongolia, according to their estimates, it has opportunities to preserve and strengthen its independence and sovereignty, provided that the decisive fateful factor (the impact of Russian-Chinese relations) is leveled by relying on the international community and the "third force" - the United States.

A completely new phenomenon in the West was the appearance of publications by international financial and other organizations, as well as their representatives working in Mongolia. Despite their generally applied nature, they contain a fairly thorough analysis, expert assessments of the political and mainly socio-economic processes that took place in the country over the last decade of the XX - beginning of the XXI century, and forecasts of their further development. For example: Asian Development Bank. Mongolia. A Centrally Planned Economy in Transition (Oxford, 1992); Mongolia Toward a Market Economy (A World Bank Study) (Washington, 1992); Staff Appraisal Report: Mongolia Economic Transition Support Chedit (China and Mongolia Department. The World Bank) (Washington, 1993); Harper C. An Assessment of Vurnerable Groups in Mongolia Strategics for Social Policy Planning. (Washington, 1994); Poverty and the Transition to a Market Economy in Mongolia I Ed. by K. Griffin (Washington, 1995. N 4).

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In studying the problems of the transition period and various aspects of the transformation of Mongolian society in the last decade of the XX century, Mongolian and Russian scientists naturally hold the palm of superiority today. It is enough to mention, for example, such Mongolian works: "Some Topical Issues of Mongolian Development" (Ulaanbaatar, 1998); Innovation of Mongolia on the Eve of the XXI Century and Future Development Patterns" (Ulaanbaatar, 2000); "Mongol ulsyn ediyn zasgiyn khvgzhliyn tdesny chadavkhi, gadaad orchin" ("Main National Issues of Mongolian Development"). opportunities for the development of Mongolia's economy and the environment") (Ulaanbaatar, 1996);" Mongol khvgzhliyn strategiyn zarim asuudlud "("Some strategic problems of Mongolia's development") (Ulaanbaatar, 2000); Khavkhchin, Gundsambuu, Khayankhyarbaa. "Social Stratification in Contemporary Mongolian Society "(Ulaanbaatar, 2002); Zhambalsuren N. "Mongol ulsyn mYYx: sred on" ("History of Mongolia: the nineties") (Ulaanbaatar, 2002).

The radical changes that took place in Mongolia in the early 1990s, after the "white horse" democratic revolution, were widely reflected in the works of G. S. Yaskina: "Economic reforms in Mongolia: social aspects "(St. Petersburg, 1993); " Mongolia: changing the development model. Political and Economic Reform" (Moscow, 1994), "Modernization of Productive Forces and Economic reform in Mongolia" (Moscow, 1994); " Mongolia - Today. Politics, Economy, Culture "(Ulaanbaatar, 1997); " The agricultural sector of the economy of Mongolia on the approaches to the market "(Moscow, 1998); and in the monographs of V. V. Graivoronsky: "Mongolia: changes in the structure of family budgets of the rural population during the transition from the socialist model of development to the market" (Moscow, 1996), "Modern aratstvo of Mongolia. Social problems of the transition period of 1980-1995" (Moscow, 1997), in journal articles and reports of Russian Mongolian scholars at national and international scientific forums.

It seems that the best way to further develop these problems is to continue and expand cooperation between specialists from different countries. In this regard, it is a gratifying fact that such large analytical works have appeared on an international basis, such as the two-volume " Culture and Inviroment in Inner Asia "(Cambridge, 1996), prepared jointly by the Mongolian scholars of England, Russia, Mongolia and China; the book "Mongolia in Transition" (Richmond, 1996) - the fruit of the creativity of Western scholars. and Mongolian specialists; monograph " Mongolia in the Twentieth Century. Landed Cosmopolitan" (N.Y.-L., 1999), created by a large team of American, English, Mongolian, Russian, Japanese and Chinese scientists; monograph " Mongolia and Northeast Asia "(Champaign, 1999) - the result of cooperation between American Chinese and Mongolian researchers; textbook "Mongolian Economy, the Transition Economic Guide" ("Mongol ediin zasag. Шилжилтийн эдийн засгийн гарын авлага") (Улан-Батор-Manchester, 1999).

Judging by the content of these works, the collective research thought so far focuses mainly on the actual problems of Mongolia's transition to market relations and democracy since the early 1990s, its place in the processes of globalization and regional cooperation. The collective monograph of the staff of the Institute of International Studies (editor-Ch. Baatar) " Mongolia and Northeast Asia. Economic cooperation". (Ulaanbaatar, 1995).

As for the other most important task - to recreate the historical truth about the main political events and political and public figures who created the history of Mongolia in the XX century, individual works still prevail here.

Undoubtedly, a major achievement of the last 10 years is the publication of the research of Sh. G. Nadirov "Tsedenbal, 1984" (Moscow, 1995); L. Bat-Ochir " Choibalsan. Намтрын нь балархайг тодруулахуй...") (" Чойбалсан. Clarification of some ambiguities in the biography...") (Ulaanbaatar, 1996); L. B. Zhabaeva "Elbek-Dorji Rinchino and the National democratic movement of the Mongolian peoples" (Ulan-Ude, 2001); S. K. Roshchin " Marshal of Mongolia Kh. Choibalsan" (Moscow, 2005), as well as a number of scientific biographies of the leaders of the revolution of 1921, Prime Ministers of the MNR, party leaders, statesmen and heroes of the liberation struggle of 1911-1912. See: Bat-Ochir L. Bodoo sayd (Minister of Bodo) (Ulaanbaatar, 1991); Dash D. Solijn Danzan (Ulaanbaatar, 1991); Longid Z. Еронхий сайд Цэнгэлтлийн Жигжиджав (Премьер-министр Ц. Zhigzhidzhav) (Ulaanbaatar, 1994); Ichinnorov S. Palzhidiyn Genden. Узэл баримтлаг, уйл ажиллага (Пэлжидийн Гэндэн. Views and activities) (Ulaanbaatar, 1994); Boldbaatar Zh. Амар сайд (Министр А. Амар) (Булган, 1993); Дашдулан Д. Золбингийн Шижээ (Улан-Батор, 1995); Болдбаатар Ж. Миний "хоцрогдсоныг" дэлхийн мэднэ. Д. Дамбын амьдрал, уйн ажиллагаа

page 192

(My "backwardness" is known to the world. Life and activity of D. Damba) (Bulgan, 1994); Dashzhamts D. Akademy, gun uhaantan, niigmshn nert zutgalten D. Tomor-Ochiryn namtar (1921-1985) (Biography of academician, philosopher, prominent public figure D. Tumur-Ochir) (Ulaanbaatar, 2001); Volbaatar Zh. Дулан хааны хуу (Монгол тврийн нэрт зутгэлтэн Бумцэндийн амьдрал, уйл ажиллагаа (Сын с горы Дулан хан. The life and work of the famous statesman G. Bumatsend) (Ulaanbaatar, 2001); Boldbaatar Zh. Erdenedaichin chin van Handdorj (Ulaanbaatar, 1994), Dalama of Tserenchimedi'n amdral uil ajillagaa (Life and work of the Da Lama of Tserenchimad) (Ulaanbaatar, 1997), Chin zutgalten gun Haisan (Prominent figure, Prince of Haisan) (Ulaanbaatar, 2002).

The scientific significance of the portrait gallery created by Mongolian and Russian scientists consists in a detailed description of the life and activities of these historical figures, an objective assessment of their role in the history of Mongolia, in restoring historical justice to those who were unreasonably repressed-Bodo, Danzan, Genden, Amar, Tumur-Ochir, and especially in reviving and personifying the previously rather impersonal national history and thus closing some of its "white spots".

Of interest in this regard are the books of the Mongolian philosopher D. Dashpurev, co-authored with the Indian political scientist from the University of Delhi. Nehru (Delhi) S. K. Soni " Reign of Terror in Mongolia 1920-1990 "(New Delhi, 1992) and with another employee of this university - Usha Prasad "Mongolia. Revolution and Independence (1911-1992) "(New Delhi, 1993). See also:" Uls tvriin khalmegchdiin dursgalyn Tsagaan nom "("White Book in Memory of victims of political Repression") (Ulaanbaatar, 1993).

I would also like to mention O. Batsaikhan's great academic research on the possibilities of an alternative, national-democratic way of development of Mongolia in the 1920s " Mongol Ulsyn khvgzhliyn zamd uchirsan zedre. 1921-1932" ("Difficulties in the Development of Mongolia 1921-1932") (Ulaanbaatar, 1997) and I. Ya. Morozova's monograph " The Comintern and Revolution in Mongolia "(Cambridge, 2002).

So, the common features of almost all the works mentioned above are the rejection of unified schemes, provisions, and the old periodization that divided the history of the MNR into the so-called democratic and socialist stages of development; rejection of the October Revolution as the initial milestone in the country's modern history, which is now attributed to 1911; replacement of the class approach to assessing the most important events and processes a systematic and comparative historical analysis; focusing on the political history, the problems of the revival and strengthening of the Mongolian statehood, the struggle for national independence, the national democratic path of development, the processes of modernization, cultural transformations, and the complex of foreign policy relations of Mongolia, especially within the framework of the triangle Russia (USSR, RF) - Monarchy of bogdogegen, MNR, Mongolia - Qing and Republican China, PRC; coverage of modern radical changes, the establishment of democracy, market relations, Mongolia's place in the world, i.e., the real challenges of the late XX - early XXI centuries.

In conclusion, despite the abundance, diversity and thoroughness of the Mongolian literature of the 1990s, it generally marked only the first steps towards writing a complete general history of Mongolia in the 20th century.


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