Libmonster ID: JP-1316
Author(s) of the publication: M. Y. Treister

In 1974, A. A. Shchepinsky investigated the entrance burial in a Bronze Age mound near the village of Chervonoye, Nizhnegorsky district of Crimea (Nogaychik mound No. 4) with a rich female burial of the first century A.D. Neither the excavator(1), nor the gold jewelry from the complex stored in the Museum of Historical Jewels included in his corpus of Sarmatian antiquities of Tavria, A.V. Simonenko(2) did not provide a detailed analysis of antique jewelry from the burial, which is the reason for the attempt of such a study presented below. A fairly detailed description of most of the monuments was made by A.V. Simonenko; some finds from the Nogaichik mound began to be displayed at international exhibitions a decade and a half after the discovery, so researchers have high-quality color reproductions at their disposal [3].

(1) Shchepinsky A. A. On the history of the Sarmatians in the Northern Black Sea region //Abstracts of reports of the XVI International Conference. antichnikov social network. countries. Yerevan, 1976. p. 525 el.; Shchepinsky A. O. Skarbi sarmatko! V1snik AN URSR. 1977. N Yu. P. 75-76. See also about the possible priestly character of burial: Khrapunov I. N. Ocherki etnicheskoi istorii Krym v rannem zheleznom veke [Essays on the ethnic history of the Crimea in the Early Iron Age]. Brands. The Scythians. Sarmatians. Simferopol, 1995. p. 71.

(2) Simonenko A.V. Sarmatians of Tavria. Kiev, 1993. p. 70 el. N 87; p. 85, 87-90. The author expresses his sincere gratitude to A. V. Simonenko for providing photographs of finds from the Nogaychik mound.

(3) See, for example: Gold der Steppe. Archaologie der Ukraine. Schleswig, 1991. S. 325. N 145 (hryvnia); N 146 (dolphin figure fibula); N 147 (intaglio ring); Gold aus Kiew. 170 Meisterwerke aus der Schatzkammer der Ukraine. Wien 1993. S. 212-219. N 60 (hryvnia); N 61 (fibula in the form of a dolphin figurine); N 62 (round fibula brooch); 60 rokiv Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Kiib, 1994. Color inserts

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Without any exaggeration, some of the finds in the Nogaychik mound can be identified as masterpieces of Late Hellenistic jewelry art. These include a fibula with a rock crystal body in the form of a dolphin, the golden head and tail of which are worn on the body(4), and a pair of gold hand bracelets, essentially first introduced into scientific circulation by A.V. Simonenko(5), which is described below: "Two gold hand bracelets. The body of the product is ring-shaped, blown, with a flattened inner surface, two corrugated wires are soldered on the outer edges. Between them are fixed 53 obliquely arranged gold wires with tightly strung river pearls. In the center of the lower side and just below the edges (between 10 and 11 rows of pearls) are placed three low onyx and glass beads, separated by gold rings decorated with grain (Fig. 1-2) (*). Paired sculptural compositions-Eros and Psyche-are inserted and soldered into the holes at the ends of the bracelet (Fig. 3-4). Psyche wears a closed chiton, Eros is half-naked. From the back, both figures are covered with a wide cloak, the ends of which are connected on the front part of the composition. Under the cloak, Eros ' right arm is seen hugging Psyche's shoulders, and his left hand is stroking her cheek. Psyche has her right arm around Eros ' waist, her left hand resting on his hip. Carefully modeled smiling faces of the characters, curls of hair, folds of clothing, fingers. The composition is distinguished by fine workmanship and artistic perfection. A gold wire is soldered to the figures on one bracelet, fixing a small emerald set in gold in the center of the composition. A bracelet lock is placed between the heads of the figures on hinges: a rectangular (in one case) and oval (in the other) faceted gold plate, in the center of which is a trapezoidal insert of zircon (bracelet No. 1) (Fig. 5) and an oval insert of citrine (bracelet No. 2) (Fig. 6). The diameter of the bracelet is 10.3 cm, thickness 1.66, figures height 3.7, lock dimensions 3.1 x 1.8 and 3.4 x 2.75 cm".

Turning to the analysis of monuments, A. V. Simonenko points out the uniqueness of bracelets, noting that he could not find anything similar among the works of ancient toreutics. According to the author, " only the scheme of the clasp is known - a stone (in our case, zircon and citrine), set in a faceted gold lock, connected to the ends of the bracelet by hinges." Similar clasps are noted in bracelets made of Petrik and Gorgippia(6).

Let's focus on the analysis of bracelets.

Analogies to a wire braid with small gold beads at their junctions are shown on a gold bracelet or grivna from the de Klerk collection of Abder in Thessaly in the first half of the third century BC(7) or the first half of the second century BC.(8) Oriental pearls strung on wires adorn a flat, wide Olbia bracelet with a hinged joint and large oval inserts (Baltimore, Walters Gallery). B. Deppert-Lippitz dates the bracelet to the last quarter of the second century BC. (9) Similar pearls strung in rows on wires adorn two other bracelets of the first century BC from Olbia with inserts of emeralds (Boston Museum of Fine Arts)(10). On the Piraeus bracelet, which comes from the August Time complex, small emerald beads are strung on wires instead of pearls(12). Many small pearls strung on gold wires adorn earrings from the House of Menan Dra in Pompeii (13). Small pearls were also used to decorate massive jewelry: for example, on the diadem of the third century BC from Canosa(14). Tradition of bracelet decoration-

(bracelets, hryvnia, earrings, fibula).

(4) See note. 3; Simonenko. Uk. soch. P. 73. Photos 17, 18.

(5) Ibid., p. 72. N 4. Photos 6-10.

( * ) References to figures in citations are given by the author of this article.

(6) Ibid., p. 88.

(7) Hoffmann Н., Davidson P.F. Greek Gold: Jewelry from the Age of Alexander. Mainz, 1965. N 53.

(8) Deppert-Lippitz B. Griechischer Goldschmuck. Mainz, 1985. S. 266 f. Abb. 200; Gold of Greece. Jewelry and Ornaments from the Benaki Museum. Dallas, 1990. P. 44. Fig. 16.

(9) Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 292, 295. Abb. 224.

(10) Ibid. S. 294. Taf. XXXII.

(11) See о датировке: Pfeiler В. Romischer Goldschmuck des ersten und zweiten Jahrhunderts n. Chr. nach datierten Funden. Mainz, 1970. S. 45 ff. Taf. 5a-b; Gold of Greece... P. 60. Fig. 24.

(12) Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 294.

(13) Stefanelli L.P.B. L'oro dei Romani. Roma, 1991. N 64. Fig. 119.

(14) Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 243. Abb. 179; Gli ori di Taranto in eta ellenistica. Milano, 1989. Cat. 54.

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Figure 1-6. Photo of bracelets from the Nogaychik mound in various aspects

Figure 2

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Fig. 3 Fig. 4

trade in small pearls strung on wires continues until the late Roman-early Byzantine era(15).

Sculptural compositions adorn the following bracelets.

Figures of newts are placed on the ends of spiral gold bracelets from the Rogers Collection in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the first half of the second century BC (16) B. Deppert-Lippitz considers these bracelets to be the best works of jewelry art of "high Hellenism" (17).

Sculptural images of Eros were a fairly common motif in the decoration of jewelry of the late Hellenistic era. It is enough to mention a series of earrings with pendants in the form of cast figures of Eros of the first century BC, including those originating from Paleokastro in Thessaly, Delos, etc.

A ring from Egypt, kept in the British Museum, with a massive shield with an oval paste insert and sculptural figures of Attis at the places where the shin goes to the shield (hinge attachment)is typologically similar to bracelets from the Nogaichik mound(19). The composition on the ends of bracelets from the Nogaychik mound is extremely similar.

(15) См., например: Numismatic and Ancient Art Gallery AG. Ancient Art of the Mediterranean World and Ancient Coins. Public Auction. 11. April 1991. Zurich, 1991. N 192.

(16) Higgins R.A. Greek and Roman Jewellery. 2nd ed. L., 1980. P. 168. PI. 5 IB.

(17) Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 268 f. Abb. 202.

(18) Levy Е. Nouveaux bijoux a Delos // BCH. 1968. ХСП. II. P. 526 ff. Fig. 3, 5; Laffinew- R. Collection Paul Canellopoulos (XV). Bijoux en or grecs et remains // BCH. 1980. 104. P. 420 ff. N 114; Fig. 125-126; Higgins. Op. cit. P. 163 f.; Deppert- Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 288 f. Abb. 217-219.

(19) Pfeiler-Lippitz В. Spathellenistische Goldschmiedearbeiten // AntK. 1972. Jg. 15. Ht 2. Taf. 36, 7; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 273. Abb. 208.

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Figure 5

Figure 6

on a silver bowl medallion purchased in 1983 by the Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California (20). Like the compositions on bracelets, Eros on the Getty Museum chalice (Figures 7-8) covers Psyche's chin with his right hand, and he is also depicted in motion, while Psyche's pose is both frontal: with her left (on the bracelets) or right (on the chalice medallion) hands bent at the elbows and placed on her hip. The compositions differ in the location of the characters: on the bracelets, Eros is depicted on the right and Psyche on the left, while on the bowl from the California collection, Eros is located to the right of Psyche. The torsos of the Nogai Eros are bare, while the shoulders of the Eros on the medallion of the chalice are covered with a folded drape. On the contrary, the torso of Psyche on the medallion of the chalice is almost naked, and the figures of Psyche on the bracelets are dressed in high-belted tunics. On the hand of Psyche, depicted on the medallion of the chalice, is shown .multi-turn spiral bracelet. However

(20) Pfrommer М. Metalwork from the Hellenized East. Catalogue of the Collections. Malibu, 1993. P. 218 f. N 127.

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7. The chalice medallion from the Paul Getty Museum. Malibu. Collection of the J. P. Morgan Museum Getty fields. Malibu, California. 83. AM. 389. Late II century BC Silver, gilding. Height 2.7 cm. Diameter 16.2, tondo diameter 10.4 cm. Getty Museum photo

these differences are not so significant when attributing monuments. The extreme (albeit mirror-like) closeness of the composition, the soft rounded treatment of volumes, the similar proportions of bodies, and even close facial features make it possible to attribute the chalice medallion from the Getty Museum collection and the figurines adorning the bracelets from the Nogaychik mound, if not to the same workshop, then almost certainly to the products of the same art school.

M. Pfrommer suggested that the chalice medallion from the Getty Museum collection dates back to early Hellenistic prototypes, and analysis suggests that it was dated to the second century BC and made in the Hellenized Near East [21]. According to the publisher, the medallion shows Dionysus and Ariadne in a composition that goes back to the Early Hellenistic attache bronze Hydria with the image of Eros and Psykhe (22). If in scenes with

(21)'Ibid. P. 218.

(22) See, for example, Hydria of the late fourth century BC from Apollonia in the Istanbul Museum: Metzger N Anatolie II (Archaeologia Mundi). Geneve-Paris-Munchen, 1969. 111. 95; The Anatolian Civilisations. V. II. Greek. Roman. Byzantine. Istanbul, 1983. P. 72. V. 169. Similar attachments are also found in museums in Berlin and London (see Eros/ / LIMC. III. P. 884. N 412 with bibliography).

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8. Gold earrings from the Nogaichik mound

Erotom and Psykhe Erot delicately touches Psykhe with his fingertips, then in this scene Dionysus literally squeezes Ariadne's chin with his hand. The pose of Ariadne, as shown by M. Pfrommer, has nothing in common with the later images of Psuche, but rather finds parallels in the statuesque Hellenistic images of Aphrodite. Considering the possible center of production of the Getty medallion, M. Pfrommer points out similar compositions on the relief from Punjab (23) and the medallion from Taxila (24) - they are usually dated to the first century AD, although it is impossible to exclude the dating of the end of the first century BC, while in comparison with the medallion from Malibu Dionysus on A relief from Punjab is presented in a mirror image. A small medallion from Taxila more or less repeats the composition of the relief from Punjab (25). Let's add to this list a stamp with the image of Eros and Psykhe from the goldsmith's hoard in Galyub (Egypt) II century BC, repeating in miniature the images on the attaches of the Hydriae of the IV century BC(26), and a miniature gold sculpture group from Taxila(27), considered by D. Boardman as an example of Hellenized jewelry art of Taxila(28). On this sculptural group, like the endings of the Nogaychik bracelets, the figure of Eros (according to Boardman) is depicted on the left, with his left hand he also embraces Psykhe, while the gesture of the right hand is somewhat different - it touches her naked chest. Both figures of the sculptural group from Taxila are shown almost naked, the drapery, as if outlining the figures in the shoulder or hip area, absolutely does not hide their nakedness, the faces of the characters are depicted strictly en face. The quality of execution, schematism give out an undoubted imitation of the Hellenistic prototype, made by a not quite skilled craftsman. By the way, M. Pfrommer's attribution of the plot as an image of Dionysus and Ariadne is rather doubtful, in any case, similar poses and gestures of the characters under consideration are not attested by the authors of the corresponding LIMC articles. The iconography of images of standing Dionysus and Ariadne in the art of Etruria and Italy of the IV-III centuries BC is also different(29).

(23) См. Speiser W. Vorderasiatische Kunst. В., 1952. Taf. 113 rechts.

(24) Marshall J. Taxila. V. II. Cambr., 1951. P. 681. N 30. PI. 207, 11.

(25) Pfrommer. Metalwork... P. 65, 98 f. Not. 792.

(26) Ippel A. Der Bronzefund von Galjub (Modelle eines hellenistischen Goldschmiedes). В., 1922. S. 75. N 85. Taf. VIII.

(27) Marshall. Op. cit. PI. 191, 98; Rowland В. Art and Architecture of India. L., 1977. P. 146. Fig. 90.

(28) Boardman J. The diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity. L., 1994. P. 118. Fig. 4, 52.

(29) S.v. Ariadne, Ariatha// LIMC. III. P. 1074. N 25-29.

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Figure 9-10. Fibula in the form of a dolphin from the Nogaychik mound

Among all the parallels given to the compositions on bracelets from the Nogaychik mound, the closest is the image on the medallion of a bowl from the collection of the Getty Museum. It should be noted, however, that the plot of Eros and Psykhe was quite common, first of all in coroplasty since the Hellenistic era(30), mainly in Alexandria, but also, for example, in the Nabataean I century BC (31)

As already noted, bracelets from the Nogaichik mound have a lock hinge connection. B. Deppert-Lippitz notes that the earliest example of a hinge lock is an Izmit bracelet. By the end of the third century BC, this structural detail becomes common, and in the 11th and 1st centuries it becomes a characteristic detail (32). Here are some examples of bracelets with hinged locks: I) Izmit bracelet in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum with a central round insert decorated with the head of Dionysus. Early 3rd century BC(33); 2) gold bracelet with garnet insert made of Fayum. Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Rogers Foundation. End of the 3rd century BC(34); 3) openwork bracelet with floral ornaments with garnet inserts and

(30) Kelt К. Fonnuntersuchungen zu spat- und nachhellenistischen Gruppen. Saarbrlicken, 1988. S. 109 ff.

(31) Parlaska 1. Seltene Typen nabataischer Terrakotten. Ostliche Motive in der spateren Provincia Arabia // Das antike Rom und der Osten. Festschrift fur Klaus Parlaska zum 65. Geburtstag / Hrsg. von Ch.Borker und М. Donderer. Eriangen, 1990 (Erianger Forschungen. Reihe A, Bd 56). S. 160-162. Taf. 29.

(32) Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 236.

(33) Ibid. S. 235, 237. Abb. 173; Pfrommer М. Untersuchungen zur Chronologie frtih- und hochhellenistischen Goldshmucks. Tubingen, 1990 (Istanbuler Forschungen, 37). Taf. 23,2.

(34) Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. Taf. 36, 14; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 270. Abb. 203.

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glass pasta from Western Syria. Chicago. Eastern Institute. II century BC (35): 4) a flat wide Olbia bracelet with large oval inserts. B. Deppert-Lippitz dates it to the last quarter of the II century BC(36); 5) an openwork bracelet with floral ornaments and a lock in the form of a high lenticular caste with an oval amethyst insert. It originates from Paleokastro in Thessaly. Athens, National Museum. I century BC(37); 6) a flat wide bracelet decorated with a filigree pattern in the form of a braid, from Da Rayadere, Rednoshir(38); 7) flat gold bracelets decorated with filigree, with a lock having a rectangular emerald insert, come from a tomb in Koshakizlar (Turkey coins from the middle of the first century BC to Tiberius(39); 8) flat gold bracelets decorated with a geometric punch pattern with oval castes with inserts were found in Tomb B in Viza in Southern Thrace. First half of the first century AD (40); 9) a Piraeus bracelet(41), with small emerald beads strung on wires instead of pearls.

Locks in the form of oval plates with inserts are available on the following bracelets: I) a bracelet with a garnet insert from Fayum (see above N 2) (42); 2) an openwork bracelet with a lock in the form of a high lenticular caste with an oval amethyst insert from Paleokastro (see above N 5) (43); 3) flat gold bracelets with a lock having a rectangular emerald insert from the tomb in Koshakizlar (see above N 7) (44); 4) oval and rectangular inserts in separate frames adorn the Piraeus bracelet (see above N 9) (45).

"Gold earrings (2 pcs.). The base of the product (Fig. 8) is a round shield, in the center of which a round cabochon of green glass is fixed in a blind caste. The insert is surrounded by black-and-white enamel triangles arranged around a ring, inside which is a soldered twisted wire. The same wire outlines the side of the shield. Above the shield in an oval caste surrounded by twisted wire, an agate insert is placed, on its sides-two round inserts of green glass topped with gold beads, and below the entire composition, on the upper edge of the central round shield - two gold volutes with a carnelian insert topped with a gold bead in the center. Below the central flap, two round inserts made of green glass are fixed symmetrically to the volute swirls (in loops), with a gold - grained loop between them. A rod-shaped suspension with a cube-shaped end and two soldered volutes in the center is movably fixed in it. Three chains with carnelian beads at the ends are movably attached to the round lower inserts. A hook-clasp is soldered on the back of each earring. The length of the earring is 5.2 cm, the diameter of the central shield is 1.5 cm"(46). Simonenko points out that the luxurious polychrome earrings from the Nogaychik mound, although they do not have direct analogies, are close to the products from Sokolova Mogila in terms of decoration and installation. With reference to R. Higgins, the author notes that a similar style - a central insert surrounded by smaller, hanging pendant chains-was widespread in the first centuries AD. Various variants of such earrings, as Simonenko points out, are known in the necropolises of ancient cities of the Northern Black Sea region, and they are also found in Sarmatian graves[47].

(35) Hoffmann, Davidson. Op. cit. N 56; Pfeiler Op. cit. S. 38. Taf. 9; Higgins. Op. cit. P. 168. PI. 50b; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 270. Abb. 204; Musche B. Vorderasiatische Shmuck zur Zeit der Arsakiden und der Sasaniden. Leiden, 1988. S. 210 f. B.I.5. Taf. LXXV.

(36) Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. Taf. 33; 7; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 292, 295. Abb. 224.

(37) Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. Taf. 33, 2-3; Higgins. Op. cit. P. 168; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 292, 294 f. Abb. 225.

(38) BMCJ. N 2798-2799; Pfeiler. Op. cit. S. 51. Taf. lOb; Stefanelli. Op. cit. N 109. Fig. 157.

(39) Atasoy S. The Kocakizlar Tumulus in Eskisehir, Turkey // AJA. 1974. 78. N 3. P. 262; N 19. PI. 52. Fig. 5.

(40) Mansel A, Grabhiigelforschung im ostlichen Thrakien // AA. 1941. Sp. 184. Abb. 37.

(41) См. Pfeiler. Op. cit. P. 45 ff. 5a-b; Gold of Greece... P. 60. Fig. 24; Deppert- Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 294.

(42) Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 118. Taf. 36, 14; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 270. Abb. 203.

(43) Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. Taf. 33, 2-3; Higgins. Op. cit. P. 168; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 292, 294 f. Abb. 225.

(44) Atasoy. Op. cit. P. 262. N 19. PI. 52. Fig. 5.

(45) См. Pfeiler. Op. cit. S. 45 ff.; Gold of Greece... P. 60. Fig. 24; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 294.

(46) Simonenko. Uk. soch. P. 71 el. Photo 4.

(47) Simonenko. Uk. soch. p. 88; see also Simonenko A.V., Lobay B. I. Sarmatians of the North-Western Black Sea region in the first century AD Kiev, 1991. p. 48.

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Meanwhile, the central element of the earrings from the Nogaychik mound - a round large shield with an insert and crowning the shield of the volute with a larger central insert and two small ones on either side of it - finds the closest parallels on the earrings of the 11th-1st centuries BC: 1) earrings of unknown origin from the Boston Museum with pendants in the form of pigeon figures(48); 2) earrings from the former Schiller collection (now in the Pforz-Heim Museum) with Erot figurine pendants (49); 3) earrings from Pelinna in Thessaly with a pendant in the form of Nika, who manages biga, on a rectangular pedestal from the Boston Museum(50); 4) earrings with amfork pendants from Kalimna (51)) an earring with a sphinx pendant of unknown origin from the Walters Gallery, Baltimore(52); 6) three pairs of earrings with amphora and crater pendants from burials of the second century and the second half of the second century BC in Tarentum have a similar compositional scheme, but small inserts in the volute curls replaced with rosettes made of grain (53); 7) an earring with an amphora pendant. Sternberg Auction(54); 8) earrings from the British Museum with amphora pendants with dolphin handles(55); 9) earrings with eros pendants from the Delos hoard(56); 10) earrings with eros pendants from the collection of P. Kanelopoulos (57); 11) an earring with a pendant in the form of a figure of Nika from urn 3 from the excavations of N. I. Veselovsky in 1908 in Tanais (58). In addition, the element in question is found on the clasps of a necklace from the Benaki Museum with pendants in the form of Eros figures(59). Sometimes the central round shield is decorated not with an insert, but with an openwork rosetta, like earrings from Sicily in the first half of the second century BC with a pendant in the form of a stylized dove(60).

The rod-shaped pendant with volutes of Nogaichik earrings finds a very close analogy in an earring put up in 1981 at an auction in Basel, which the author of the catalog dates to the second century BC. (61) Rod-shaped pendants with volutes of earrings from the Nogaichik mound and Basel are actually an element for fixing pendants in the form of amphorae, while the volutes served not only as a nothing more than reproducing the handles of amphorae. This is easy to see when comparing, for example, with earrings from the British Museum (see N 8 above), which have amfork pendants on square profiled plinths: exactly the same plinths are found at the base of rod-shaped pendants of earrings from the Nogaichik mound. Similarly, amforki - pendants of late Hellenistic earrings from Benevento (Southern Italy) from a private collection in Switzerland are also made [62]. We also recall earrings from a Sarmatian burial site with an early Roman articulated fibula from the village of Davydov Brod (63).B. Mouchet cites a whole series of amphora-shaped pendants on plinths originating mainly from Syria and southern Russia, dating back to the Hellenistic period(64).

Earrings from the Nogaychik mound differ from the simpler ones in the design of earrings

(48) Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 111. Taf. 34, 2-3.

(49) Ibid. Taf. 35, /; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 287 f. Abb. 217.

(50) Miller S. Two Groups ofThessalian Gold. Berkeley-Los Angeles-London, 1979 (University of California PubL, Classical Studies, V. 18). P. 42-44. PI. 24 c-d, 25; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit Taf. XXV.

(51) BMCJ. N 2328. Higgins. Op. cit. P. 163. PI. 48c.

(52) Jewerly. Ancient to Modem. Baltimore, 1979. N 245.

(53) Gli ori di Taranto... P. 165-168. N 79-80, 82.

(54) Frank Stemberg AG. Auktion XXVII. 7-8. November 1994. Zurich, 1994. N 877.

(55) BMCJ. N 2331; Levy. Op. ciP. 529. Fig. 6. P. 530; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. Taf. XXXI; compare a series of similar pendants to earrings from the burials of the Tulgar burial ground in Southern Tajikistan (Mandelstam A.M. Nomads on the way to India / / MIA. 1966. 136. p. 123 el. Table LIX,,/-5, 7-8).

(56) Levy. Op. cit. P. 526 ff. Fig. 3.

(57) Laffineur. Op. cit. P. 420 ff. N 114. Fig. 125-126.

(58) Knipovich T. N. Tanais, M.-L., 1949. p. 62 el. Fig. 20, 23.

(59) Gold of Greece... P. 55. PI. 37.

(60) Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. Taf. XXVII.

(61) Munzen und Medaillen A.G. Basel. Sonderliste T. Schmuck der Antike. Gefasse und Gerate aus Bronze. Oktober 1981. Basel, 1981. N 28.

(62) Bedeutende Kunstwerke aus dem Nachlass Dr. Jacob Hirsch. Aukdon am 7. November 1957 in Luzem. Adolph Hess AG. Luzem. N 99.

(63) Simonenko. U k op. p. 61. el. Fig. 2a.

(64) Musche. Op. cit. S. 99 ff. Tur. 14.4. Taf. XIX.

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first centuries AD (65) - with larger shields, saturated inserts, or coarser, with one central insert of oval shape, volute-shaped curls and chains with strung pearls, like earrings from the Antique Collection of Berlin Museums of unknown origin of the first century AD(66) Probably in parallel with the above-mentioned Late Hellenistic earrings with a large number of rings in the first century AD. a large round shield evolved into earrings with a shield formed by two large oval inserts located one above the other: see, for example, earrings from Paleokastro with a pendant in the form of an Eros figure (Hamburg) [67], earrings with eros pendants from the former Loeb collection in Munich [68], earrings with pendants in the form of eros from the former Loeb collection in Munich [68]. Attis figurines from the Benaki Museum (69).

During the development of the type represented by earrings from the Nogaichik mound, the central shield increases in size, including the upper volute and lower significantly enlarged inserts (an interesting example of this development is the Tom earrings found in a burial of the first or early second century AD [70]).

In a wooden box next to the right tibia of the buried woman, there were among other items two fibulae (71). One of them "has a body made of rock crystal in the form of a dolphin (Fig. 9). A gold head is placed on the body. On the crown of the head is a curved fin, on the sides-two fins with dedicated membranes. Round eyes are surrounded by inset lines depicting eyelashes. The snout is elongated, resembling a duck's beak, with a prominent mouth. A golden flat pin extends down from the chin, in which the iron spring axis is transversely fixed. The edge of the head (Fig. 10) is emphasized by an annular line of grain balls and decorated with teeth that go into the crystal. A golden conical tail with a horizontal caudal fin is also worn on the body. The edge of the tail is decorated with teeth set on the crystal and emphasized with soldered wire. On the underside of the tail is a soldered double gold receiver with traces of oxide from the needles. The needles and spring apparatus are lost. Fibula length 7.8 cm, maximum diameter 1 cm, spring axis length 1.3 cm"(72)-. The author considers the fibula to be a unique product that has no analogues, noting "that it would not be a mistake to refer it to a series of zoomorphic fibulae of Bosporan production that existed in the first and early second centuries AD"(73).

Dolphin figurines were used in ancient jewelry: see, for example, gold earrings in the form of dolphin figurines, defined as the products of Tarentum jewelers of the IV-III centuries BC. (74) One of the pairs of such earrings, stored in the Tarentum Museum, comes from Canosa, where it was discovered in a burial of the late III - early II centuries. The golden protoma of dolphin fibulae from the Nogaichik mound stylistically resembles the engraved protoma of dolphins used as locks for earrings from the Hamburg Museum dating from the first century BC(76) and earrings from the British Museum(77). M. Pfrommer published similar earrings dating from the second century BC.E., noting their findings in Ptolemaic Egypt (3), in southern Russia (2: from the collection of Merle de Massono) and Cyprus (5), suggesting that the shape of these earrings was developed in Egypt(78). Dolphin figurines were used as locks on gold necklaces from the Tarentum necropolis in the mid-second half of the second century BC (79)

(65) See, for example, the earrings from Olbia in Baltimore (Jewelry... P. 98. N 284).

(66) Stefanelli. Op. cit. N 108. Pig. 156.

(67) Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 117. Taf. 35, 2-3; Hoffmann, Davidson. Op. cit. N 136; Higgins. Op. cit. PI. 48e; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. 287, 289. Abb. 219.

(68) Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 287, 289. Abb. 218.

(69) Gold of Greece... P. 55. PI. 36.

(70) Goldhelm, Schwert und Silberschatze. Reichtilmer aus 6000 Jahren rumanischer Vergangenheit / Hrsg. von B. Deppert-Lippitz, W. Meier-Arendt. Frankfurt, 1994. S. 184 f. N 63, 2.

(71) Simonenko. U k op. p. 70.

(72) Ibid., pp. 73. Photos 17, 18.

(73) Ibid., p. 85.

(74) Hoffmann. Davidson. Op. cit. N 24.

(75) Gli ori di Taranto... P. 188. N 122 b.

(76) Hoffmann Н., Claer V. von. Antiker Gold- und Silberschmuck: Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg. Mainz, 1968. N 81; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 290 f. Abb. 221.

(77) BMCJ. N 2426, 2427; Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 115, 117. Taf. 36, 3-4; Higgins. Op. cit. P. 161. PI. 47 e.

(78) Pfrommer. Untersuchungen... S. 178 f. Abb. 34; S. 359 f. Taf. 30,50-57.

(79) Gli ori di Taranto... P. 220 ff. N 153-155; see also depertlippitz. Op. cit. S. 251 f. Abb. 185.

page 192

Twelve similar bone fibulae in the form of dolphin figures come from two burials of the Tarentum necropolis of the IV century BC(80); see also a similar fibula from the collection of L. Mildenberg(81). At the Sternberg auction, a pendant was put up (?) in the form of a similar dolphin figurine made of green glass paste(82).Small dolphin figurines carved from whole pieces of pomegranate or carnelian are decorated with earrings from the end of the III - first half of the II century BC with pendants in the form of golden eros sitting on them(83).

Rock crystal is used to make a small pendant of the II-III centuries AD in the form of a hare from the collection of L. Mildenberg (84). However, perhaps the closest analogy to the fibula from the Nogaychik mound in terms of the use of materials (gold, rock crystal) and the structure of the product is the panther-shaped pronizi (head-gold, body-rock crystal), the end of a necklace with a butterfly pendant found in a burial discovered in Parutino in 1891., items from which are kept in various museums around the world. This necklace from the Olbia necropolis is usually dated to the first century BC (85), although, in my opinion, it can rather belong to the middle or third quarter of the first century AD and be made in the Olbia or Chersonesus workshop(86).

"Brooch with a gold teardrop-shaped shield, slightly curved along the long axis. Two teardrop-shaped inserts are located on it-the upper one is made of garnet, the lower one is made of green glass - in jagged castes surrounded by wire with transverse notches. The clasp is bronze, with a 6-turn spring with a lower bowstring and a short receiver. Length 4.2 cm, width 1.5 cm " (87).

Similar inserts in similar frames are found, for example, on a gold pendant from the Kallatis necropolis of the late Hellenistic period (88), on an earring exhibited in 1981 at the Basel auction and dated to the third century BC(89), on a necklace pendant from the former Barton Berry collection at the Indiana University Museum in Bloomington in the mid-11th-1st century. on the pendant of a Late Hellenistic necklace from the collection of E. Opp-penlander(91), a pendant from the collection of P. Kanellopoulos(92), on the famous openwork headdress from Tarentum in Berlin(93); on a late Hellenistic earring from Etruria in the same collection(94).

Rims in the shape of the so-called dog tooth are generally characteristic of the Late Hellenistic era (95). There is reason to believe that this technique of fixing inserts has been widespread since the end of the III century BC . e. - inserts are similarly fixed on the Herculean nodes of diadems from Kerch (96) and Ithaca(97), on moonlit pendants from Pe-

(80) Gli ori di Taranto... P. 344 f. N 298-309.

(81) KozloffA. et al. More Animals in Ancient Art from the Leo Mildenberg Collection. Mainz, 1986. N 1 1, 90.

(82) Frank Sternberg. Auktion XXV. 25-26. November 1991. Zurich, 1991. N 908.

(83) Hackens Т. Museum of Art, Providence, Rhode Island. Catalogue of the Classical Collection. Classical Jewellery. Providence, 1976. N 33; Laffineur. Op. cit. P. 412 f. N 103. Fig. 112; Calinescu A. The Art of Ancient Jewelry. An Introduction to the Burton Y. Berry Collection. Bloomington, 1994. P. 24. Fig. 15.

(84) Tierbilder aus vier Jahrtausend. Antiken der Sammlung Mildenberg. Mainz, 1983. S. 193. N 186 bis.

(85) Jewerly... P. 96 f..N" 281.

(86) See for more details: Traister M. Yu. Once again on necklaces with butterfly pendants of the first century AD from the Northern Black Sea region / / PAV. 1993. N 4. pp. 87-95. An indirect confirmation of the hypothesis is the concentration of finds in the Chersonese and the Northwestern Black Sea region. This is confirmed by a new find of a necklace with a butterfly pendant, known to the author from amateur photos from collectors, as if originating from the steppe Crimea.

(87) Simonenko. Uk. soch. P. 73; Photo 19.

(88) Goldhelm...N62,4.

(89) Miinzen und Medaillen A.G. Sonderliste T. Oktober 1981. N 27.

(90) Ancient Jewelry from the Collection of Burton Y. Berry. Bloomington, 1973. N 53a; Calinescu. Op. cit. P. 25. Fig. 16.

(91) Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 116. Taf. 30, 2.

(92) Laffineur. Op. cit. P. 423 f. N 116. Fig. 128.

(93) Hoffmann, Davidson. Op. cit. N 124. Fig. 124c; Formigli Е., Heilmeyer W.-D. Tarentiner Goldschmuck in Berlin. В., 1990 (130/131. BWPr). S. 69 f. Abb. 51 f. S. 72. Abb. 55.

(94) Greifenhagen A. Schmuckarbeiten in Edelmetall. Bd I. V., 1970. Taf. 75, 17.

(95) Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 117.

(96) Pfrommer. Untersuchungen... S. 309. KH 97. Taf. 9, 4.

(97) Hoffmann, Davidson. Op. cit. S. 57 f.; Higgins. Op. cit. P. 158; Pfrommer. Untersuchungen... S. 302. HK 32.

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linna(98), a pendant necklace found in a burial site near Damascus, 11-1 centuries BC(99), a pendant necklace ca. 200 BC from Nola in Southern Italy(100), necklace beads from Olbia in Sardinia at the beginning of the second century BC(101), earrings of the second century BC from Bari and Tarentum(102), a tiara from Kerch in Munich(103), as well as on brooches of the second century BC.- I centuries BC and I century AD from the Kuban region (104) and from private collections(105).

However, teardrop-shaped inserts in a toothed crimp are also known in jewelry of the first centuries, in particular, on an earring of the II century AD from a burial near Varna(106), on a necklace of the same time from Emesa in Syria(107).

An ornament identified as a diadem was found on the forehead of the buried woman (108). " A golden diadem woven from three chains. 36 vertical suspensions soldered from five balls and topped with a cylinder are movably attached to the lower one (Fig. 11). The diadem ends are decorated with figured plates decorated with scanned volutes and ovas. In the center of the plates are oval garnet inserts (Fig. 12). Tiara length 31 cm, width 0.7 cm, pendant length 1.4 cm"(109). Noting the difference between the" diadem", both morphologically and stylistically, from the Sarmatian diadems, the author points out "expressive features of an ancient product" (110).

However, the piece of jewelry in question is most likely a necklace. This is indicated not only by its length (31 cm), which is impossible for a tiara, but also by a whole series of very close analogies. The closest analogy to it is a necklace from the necropolis of Canosa, also woven from three rows of chains and with absolutely similar pendants, reliably dated to the end of the III-beginning of the II century BC, probably of Tarentian manufacture! (111). Extremely close is also a necklace originating from a complex of jewelry found in Tarentum in the XIX century. together with the Tarentum silver coin of 219-212 BC(112) The Canosa necklaces and the Nogaichik mound differ only in their clasps, although stylistically they also have a lot in common - for example, the stamped clasp of a Canosa necklace is made in the form of a stylized a lotus flower, while the clasp from the Nogaychik mound is probably further away from the prototype. The clasp on the necklace from a private collection in Switzerland has an ellipsoid shape with a pearl ornament around the edge and the image of a stylized lotus flower. The proximity of the Nogajcik necklace to the products of the Tarentian school is also confirmed by the undoubted prototype of its clasp: we find it on a necklace woven from six rows of chains from Mottola, which is reliably dated to the first quarter of the third century BC (113), but in the central part of the Mottola necklace, at the place where the necklace from the Nogajcik mound insert, placed a filigree image of a palmette. A similar motif is used, for example, in the decoration of a bracelet made of

(98) Miller. Op. cit. p. 29 f. PI. 16.

(99) BMCJ. N 2718; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 253. Abb. 187.

(100) Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 249. Abb. 181.

(101) BMCJ. N 2697; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 255. Abb. 189.

(102) Gli ori di Taranto ... P. 164. N 78; 165 f. N 80; 171 f. N 88; see also Frank Sternberg AG. Auktion XXVII. N 875; an earring from the British Museum: Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 112. Taf. 36, G', 2; Higf; ins. Op. cit. P. 160. PI. 47 D; Pfrommer. Untersuchungen... S. 358. OR 67. Taf. 24, //.

(103) Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 275. Abb. 212. Taf. XXVIII-XXIX.

(104) Anfimov N. V. Ancient gold of Kuban. Krasnodar, 1987. Pp. 191, 195, 204, 210: The Treasures of Nomadic Tribes. Tokyo, 1991. N 61-62, 76, 87, 89, 95.

(105) Munzen und Medaillen AG Basel. Sonderliste М. Werke antiker Goldschmiedekunst. September 1970. Basel, 1970.N 120.

(106) Ruseva-Slokoska L. Roman Jewellery. A Collection of the National Archaeological Museum-Sofia. L., 1991. N 26 a.

(107) Pfeiler. Op. cit. S. 86 f., 96. Taf. 28.

(108) Simonenko. U k op. p. 70.

(109) Ibid., p. 72. Photo 5.

(110) Ibid., p. 89.

(111) Carducci С. Gold- und Silberschmuck aus dem antiken Italien. Wien, 1962. S. 44. Taf. 44; Gli ori di Taranto... P. 201, 219 f. N 152.

(112) Hoffmann, Davidson. Op. cit. P. 274 f. N 127; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 217. Abb. 153; Formigli, Heilmeyer. Op. cit. S. 50-54. Abb. 23-28.

(113) Gli ori di Taranto... Op. cit. P. 217-219. N 151.

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Figure 11-12. Necklace from the Nogaychik mound

Tukh-el-Karamus(114), a tiara decoration (?) from the collection of the Walters Gallery in Baltimore, which publishers date widely - IV-II centuries BC(115)

The prototype of the end of the Mottola necklace is also known from the late 4th - early 3rd century BC Tarentum necklace(116). A similar palmette adorns gold spiral pendants of the second half of the V-IV centuries BC, found on the Bosporus(117); gold earrings from Kourion of the second half of the V century BC(118), a bronze basin of the IV century BC from the Chertomlytsky mound(119) , gold stamped plaques with a relief composition from the Elizabethan Monastery. mound of the end of the IV century BC(120), from the Kurdzhipsky mound of the same time(121); gold openwork plaques of the same time from the 5th Ulyapsky mound in the Kuban (122), silver stamped-

(114) Pfrommer. Untersuchungen... Taf. 8, 7.

(115) Jewelry... N264.

(116) Gli on di Taranto... P. 212 f. N 143.

(117) Silantieva P. F. Spiralevidnye podvoski Bospora [Spiral pendants of the Bosporus]. The Hermitage Museum. 1976. Vol. 17. p. 131. Fig. 7.

(118) Williams D., Ogden J. Greek Gold. Jewerly of the Classical World. N.Y., 1994. N 175.

(119) Peyre С. Le disque d'Auvers-sur-Oise et son modele Mediterran6en // RA. 1992. Fasc. 1. P. 175. Fig. 2.

(120) OAK for 1912 St. Petersburg, 1916. p. 58. Fig. 84.

(121) Galanina L. K. Kurdzhipsky kurgan. L., 1980. p. 92. N 48.

36; Maslenitsyna E. S. Nekotorye stilisticheskie gruppy pamyatnikov v iskusstve Prikuban'ya v konte V-IV vv. B.C. [Some stylistic groups of monuments in the art of the Kuban region at the end of the V-IV centuries BC]. Grakovskie chteniya na dept. arkheologii MSU 1989-1990. Materials of the seminar on Scythian-Samara archeology, Moscow, 1992, pp. 62, 67. Fig. 3, 10.

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a silver belt from the sanctuary of Apollo of the Alea at Syro in Southern Italy(123), a tray of a silver bowl from Tarentum from the Rothschild collection(124), and a number of other works of Hellenistic Toreutics(125).

The shape of the clasp, which is close to the Nogaychik necklace, and also with garnet inserts, adorns the necklace, woven from many chains with pendants in the form of am-forok from the Benaki Museum. The necklace comes from Thessaly and dates back to the second century BC (126 )Let us also mention the Late Hellenistic bracelet from Alexandria in the Benaki Museum, the clasps of which are decorated with an ornament in the form of similar repeating palmettes(127). Finally, it is impossible not to refer to the necklace from Sokolova Mogila, which was not done by A. V. Simonenko, probably for the reason that he defines the necklace from the Nogaichik mound as a diadem - perhaps the tips of the necklace from Sokolova mogila are the closest, though more schematized, analogy; they do not have garnet inserts, and the plate of the head of the necklace from Sokolova mogila It is replaced with a rectangular plate with a hemispherical bulge in the central part!(128). The analogies given by G. T. Kovpanenko(129) to the necklace from Sokolova Mogila, in particular, the necklace from the Late Sarmatian burial near the village of Staritsa(130), belong to a completely different type.

The prototype of such palmettes, known in Southern Italy, was borrowed in the second half of the fifth century BC by the Celts(131) and used in the fourth century BC (132) and third century BC (133).

The clasps of Hellenistic necklaces of the Nogaichik type served as the prototype of the clasps of necklaces of the first centuries AD. As an example, I will mention the clasps of a gold necklace from a hoard in Nikolayev in Bulgaria in the middle of the third century AD(134). An ornament in the form of similar stylized palmettes adorns a golden fibula with pendants from Karachay-Cherkessia(135).

"A gold ring with a massive tire extending to the shield and a truncated-conical shield (Fig. 13). An intaglio on a carnelian is inserted into the beetle - a human head to the right (Fig. 14). The finger hole is round. Diameter 3, shield dimensions 3.5 X 1.5 cm"(136). The author notes, with references to M. I. Maksimova and O. Ya. Neverov, that rings of this form are typical for the III-II centuries BC[137], with which one cannot disagree [138].

"A gold ring with a splint extending to the shield and an oval shield decorated with a relief image of the head of Athena (?). Diameter 2.4, dimensions of the shield 2 X 1.4 cm" (139). According to A. V. Simonenko (140), based on the classification of O. Ya. Neverov(141),

(123) Guzzo P.O. Oreficerie dalla Magna Grecia. Taranto, 1992. P. 268. NV. A2.

(124) Pfrommer М. Studien zu alexandrinischer und gros.sgriechischer Toreutik friihhellenistischer Zeit. В., 1997 (Archaologische Forschungen. 17). S. 249. KBk 17 (with bibliography). Taf. 35b.

(125) Ibid.Taf.50a,/.

(126) Gold of Greece... P. 46. Fig. 18.

(127) Pfeiler. Op. cit. S. 51. Taf. Ua.

(128) Konpinenko G. T. Sarmatian burial of the first century AD on the Southern Bug. Kiev, 1986. p. 281. Fig. 25-26; 27,2.

(129) Ibid., p. 30, notes 6-8.

(130) Shilov V. P. Pozdnesarmaticheskoe pogrebenie u s. Staritsa [Late Sarmatian burial near the village of Staritsa]. Antichnaya istoriya i kul'tura Merraniternya i Prichernomorya [Ancient History and Culture of the Mediterranean and Black Sea region], Moscow, 1968, p. 312 p. Fig.3.

(131) See, for example, pommels from Oberndorf in Austria (Kruta V. La fibule" a masques " du Gue de Port-a-Binson (Mame) / / Etudes celtiques. 1989. XXVI. P. 19. Fig. 7).

(132) See, for example, the disc from Ouvers-sur-Oise at the beginning of the fourth century BC (Reuge. Op. cit. pp. 174-176. Fig. 1).

(133) Kruta V. Le masque et la palmette au IIIe s. avant J.-C.: Loisy-sur-Mame et Brno-Malomerice // Etudes celtiques. 1987. XXIV. P. 13 ft.

(134) Ruseva-Slokoska. Op. cit. N 107.

(135) The Treasures of Nomadic Tribes. N 87.

(136) Simonenko. U k op. S. 73. Photo 21.

(137) Ibid., p. 89.

(138) See also Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 112 f. Taf. 36, 5-6; Higgins. Op. cit. P. 169 f. PI. 53a; Laffineur. Op. cit. P. 414 f. N 106. Fig. 115-116; Deppert-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 238 f. Abb. 174-176; Dumm I.G. Gold-schmiedearbeiten der Volkerwanderungszeit aus dem nordlichen Schwarzmeergebiet. Katalog der Sammlung Diergart 2 // Kolner Jahrbuch fur Vor- und Fruhgeschichte. 1988. Bd. 21. N 24. Abb. 58-59.

(139) Simonenko. U k op. S. 73. Photo 22.

(140) Ibid., p. 89.

(141) Metal rings of the Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic epochs from the Northern Black Sea Region (classification experience) / / Antique Toreutics, L., 1986, p. 24.

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Figure 13-14. Gold ring from the Nogaychik mound

the shape of the ring is characteristic of the first century BC. Note, however, that, having appeared in the second century BC and being characteristic of late Hellenism, it survives to the Augustan time(142).

"Oval medallion with agate insert. Agate matt, with yellow veins in a scalloped frame, with a loop on the edge for hanging. The rim of the frame is decorated with double twisted wire, the teeth-with a smooth brush. Dimensions 3.7 X 3.4 cm"(143). A similar medallion, but fixed not vertically in relation to the loop, but horizontally and with a glass insert, comes from the burial ground at hut. It dates from the second century BC (excavations by I. I. Marchenko in 1983) (144). The oval falar with a large crenellated insert comes from a mound near Zubovsky khutor(145).

"A golden brooch. The base of the product is a round flat shield (Fig. 15). In the center is an oval cabochon made of frosted light green glass in a scalloped caste decorated with scania, and set with gold miniature leaves. Below it is a scanned ornament in the form of a "running wave". Around the central insert, two concentric rows of cones are soldered onto the shield, topped with a grain ball and separated by a wire. Around the circumference of the shield -six teardrop-shaped inserts of carnelian in deaf castes (two are lost). Ten round gold loops for pendants are soldered to the lower edge of the shield (lost). The edge of the brooch is contoured with twisted wire. On the reverse side is soldered a clasp in the form of a flat gold hook. Brooch diameter 5 cm, center insert dimensions 1.52 X 1.1, small 0.9 X 0.6 cm"(146). Further, the researcher notes a certain proximity of the brooch to the clasp medallion from the Artyukhov kurgan (147) and the medallion from the village of Novo-Vochepshi (see below).

Let us pay attention to a number of details of the brooch from the Nogaichik mound that were not noted by A. V. Simonenko. First, along the edge of the brooch there are four groups of two holes, clearly designed for sewing, or rigid fastening of the brooch; it is interesting that they are located at an uneven distance from each other; in addition, the fourth ring for hanging from the bottom has another such hole. The central element of the brooch in the form of a glass insert in a jagged caste in a frame of leaves practically covers the central field ornament in the form of a "running wave"located under it. It is impossible to assume that the master of the brooch intended to place a rosette with a glass insert, so that it practically overlaps the ornament in the form of a "running wave". Bearing in mind the details we have noted, we can think that initially the central part of the badge was decorated with an ornament in the form of a "running wave" framing some composition in the center, and the badge itself had pendants hanging on chains of round loops.

(142) Pfeiler-Lippitz. Op. cit. S. 113. Taf. 36, 72; Higgins. Op. cit. P. 170. PI. 53c.

(143) Simonenko. Uk. soch. P. 73. N 14. Photo 20.

(144) Anfimov. Uk. op. p. 171; Masterpieces of ancient Kuban art. N 164. Table XXXIII.

(145) Mantsevich A. P. Nakhodka v Zaporizhskom kurgane (K voprosu o sibirskoy kollektsii Petr I) [A find in the Zaporozhye Kurgan (On the issue of the Siberian collection of Peter the Great)]. Skifo-sibirskiy zveriniy stil v iskusstve narodov Evrazii [Scythian-Siberian animal style in the Art of the peoples of Eurasia], Moscow, 1976, p. 185. Fig. 19, 3.

(146) Simonenko. Uk. soch. P. 72. Photo 12.

(147) Maksimova M. I. Artyukhov Kurgan, L., 1979. p. 69, art. 83. Fig. 20.

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15. Golden brooch from the Nogaichik mound

later, the central part of the brooch was changed for some reason, the pendants were lost, and the badge itself was clearly not used according to the original plan: holes were rather carelessly punched along the edge for stitching or fastening. The indication that the plaque was found in the area of the cervical vertebrae (148), in any case, suggests that it was not part of the necklace, since the beads were found in the area of the chest(149).

Let's try to trace the evolution of constructive and ornamental motifs of the Nogaychik brooch. Approximately one-third of the circumference of the brooch at a short distance from each other, 10 rings are soldered to the edge. Rings around the edge of the brooch were used for pendants - six such rings, in which chains with pendants in the form of circles are threaded, are found on brooches from Karachay-Cherkessia, dating from publishers of the first century AD (150) Similar pendants (in the amount of four) are found on a round brooch with a rosetta - an accidental find from a burial ground near the village of Novo-Vochepshi, dated to the III-II centuries BC. (151) Similar round brooches with pendants (usually four), used as central medallions of tiaras, necklaces or as fibulae, widely represented on female busts from Palmyra II-III centuries AD (152) In the Museum of Damascus there is such a golden fibula with three pendants in the form of hearts on chains, dated II-III centuries AD(153).

(148) Simonenko. Uk. soch. p. 70.

(149) Ibid., p. 71.

(150) The Treasures of Nomadic Tribes. N 87.

(151) Masterpieces of ancient Kuban art. N 140; A.V. Simonenko (uk. soch., p. 90) does not exclude that the medallion from the New Century is a century later.

(152) See, for example: Poulsen K. Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek. Ein Fuhrer durch die Sammlungen. Copenhagen, 1966. S. 83; El-Chehadeh J. Untersuchungen zum antiken Schmuck in Syrien. В., 1972. S. 94 f.; Gup A.R? Spencer E.S. Roman Syria // Gold Jewelry. Style and Meaning from Mycenae to Constantinople / Ed. T. Hackens. Louvain-la-Neuve, 1983 (Aurifex, 5). P. 114. Pig. 14; P. 121; Tanabe K. The Sculpture of Palmyra. V.I. Tokyo, 1986. P. 369. Fig. 338; Musche. Op. cit. S. 179 ff.

(153) Deppert-Lippitz B. Die Bedeutung der palmyrenischen Grabreliefs fur die Kenntnis romischen Schmucks // Palmyra - Geschichte, Kunst und Kultur der syrischen Oasenstadt. Linz, 1987 (Linzer Archaologische Forschungen, 16). S. 188. Abb. 12.

page 198

rings (14) soldered at equal distances from each other on a gold medallion of the III century BC depicting a bust of Artemis from the Statatos collection(154) and a medallion from Carpenesi (?) of the II century BC (Benaki Museum) depicting a bust of Athena(155) had a functional purpose. R. Higgins points out There are a total of six such braided medallions that served as hair nets, four of which probably originate from Carpenesi, the fifth is currently located in Providence (156), and the sixth is in Constance (found in Callatis) (157). Typologically, they are similar to the hairnet from the above-mentioned complex of the late 3rd century BC, originating from Tarentum. Interestingly, the Carpenesian medallions are decorated with both soldered filigree ornaments and garnet inserts(158). Four rings with pendants are found on silver medallions-pendants, probably part of earrings, the central shield of which is decorated with rosettes. The medallions come from Taxila and date to c. 19-70 AD (159)

If we pay attention to the forms of carnelian inserts, then perhaps the most characteristic of them - in the form of a stylized ivy leaf - finds numerous parallels in Late Hellenistic jewelry, in particular, on the above-mentioned openwork bracelet with plant ornaments with inserts of garnet and glass paste from Western Syria of the II century BC (160)., pendants and medallions of the same time made of Pellina (161);

pendants of the Bloomington necklace(162); a butterfly-shaped pendant from the late 3rd century BC from the former Hans collection, originating in Olbia(163). However, the same form of inserts filled with green enamel is also found on the gold pendant with the head of Athena from Kul-Oba in the first half of the IV century BC(164); inserts of this form are known in the first centuries AD: on the pendants of the necklace of the 1st-11th centuries from Kerch (Berlin) (165) and on the pendant of the first in the form of a butterfly from Chersonesos (166); on a medallion from the burial of the first half - middle of the first century AD from the Kurdzhip mound(167) and even at a later time, on jewelry from the Hunnic era(168). The central element of the brooch-a flower-finds an analogy on the Heracles knot of the diadem of the beginning of the 4th century BC (New York) (169).

(154) Amandry P. Collection Helene Stathatos. V. 3. Strasbourg, 1963. P. 99; Miller. Op. cit P. 35. PI. 21f.

(155) Higgins. Op. cit. PI. 520.

(156) Hoffmann, Davidson. Op. cit. P. 224 f. N 91. Fig. 91a-b; Hackens. Op. cit. P. 70; nine rings at equal distances from each other.

(157) Higgins. Op. cit. P. 166. Parallels between Hellenistic medallions and Kuban Hellenistic fibulae: compare filigree ornament in the form of aracea flowers, on the medallion from Thessaly in Princeton (Miller. Op. cit. PI. 7b; Higgins. Op. cit. PI. 52a); on a medallion with a bust of Aphrodite from Pagas in Thessaly in Providence (Hoffmann, Davidson. Op. cit. P. 224f. N 91. Fig. 91a-b; Hackens. Op. cit. P. 70); on a medallion with a bust of Athena from the Northern Black Sea region in Cambridge (Hoffmann, Davidson. Op. cit. P. 225. Fig. 91c; Miller. Op. cit. P. 13. PI. 6e) and on a fibula from the Zelensky kurgan (Shkorpil V. V. Report on excavations in Kerch, on the Taman Peninsula and in Alushta in 1912 / / IAK. 1916. 60. P. 26. Fig. 8).

(158) See Higgins. Op. cit. PI. 52A-B.

(159) Musche. Op. cit. S. 162. Taf. LIV, 2.1-2.2.

(160) Hoffmann, Davidson. Op. cit. N 56; Pfeiler. Op. cit. S. 38. Taf. 9; Higgins. Op. cit. P. 168. PI. 50b; Deppert-Lippitz. Griechischer Goldschmuck. S. 270. Abb. 204; Musche. Op. cit. S. 210f. B. 1.5. Taf. LXXV.

(161) Miller. Op. cit. 1979. PI. 16a, c; 17a, c, e; 18a, c; 20a, c; 22a.

(162) Calinescu. Op. cit. Fig. 16.

(163) Schefold К. Meisterwerke griechischer Kunst. Basel-Stuttgart, 1960. N 602; Hoffmann, Davidson. Op. cit. N51.

(164) Artamonow M.I. Goldschatz der Skythen. Prag, 1970. Taf. 214-215; Higgins. Op. cit. PI. 29; Williams, Ogden. Op. cit. N 87.

(165) Greifenhagen A. Schmuckarbeiten in Edelmetall. Bd. II. В., 1975. Taf. 14, 3; Stefanelli. Op. cit. N 118. Fig. 164.

(166) GE. X. 1896. 18; OAK for 1896 St. Petersburg, 1898. p. 76. Fig. 323 (burial 630); Minns E. N. Scythians and Greeks. Cambr., 1913. P. 407; Prushevskaya E. O. Khudozhestvennaya obrabotka metalla (torevtika) / / Antichnye goroda Severnogo Prichernomorya, Moscow-L., 1955. p. 352 el. Fig. 43; Sokolov G. I. Antichnoe Prichernomorye, L., 1973. p. 138. N 148; Khudozhestvennoe crafto epokhi Rimskoi imperii. L., 1980. N 141; Traister. Uk. soch. p. 87-95.

(167) Galanina L. K. Vypusknoe pogrebenie I c. AD Kurdzhipskogo kurgan [Inlet burial of the first century AD of the Kurdzhip kurgan]. SA. 1973. N 2. p. 49. Fig. 1, 9. p. 53. N 9; ona. Kurdzhipsky Kurgan, L., 1980. Table 1..

(168) Damm. Op. cit. N 3. Abb. 8-9; N 6. Abb. 15-16.

(169) Pfrommer. Untersuchungen... S. 317f. HK 185. Taf. 7, 6.

page 199

16. Hryvnia from the Nogaichik mound

"A bottle with a cylindrical body made of agate, closed on both sides with gold cylindrical lids, ornamented with scanned images. Length 2.3 cm, diameter 0.65 cm"(170). Similar forms of gold-rimmed agate pendants are known, for example, in the hoard of toreutics and jewelry acquired by the Getty Museum. M. Pfrommer dates agate pendants to the end of the first century BC, indicating that their parallels originate from the area southwest of the Caspian Sea(171).

Necklace with pendants in the form of leaves and circles(172). Pendants in the form of circles come from a treasure found on Delos(173); from the Tillya Tepe necropolis(174); burial grounds of the II century BC - I century AD from the Kuban region(175). Heart-shaped leaf pendants are known from the Till Tepe necropolis(176).

As noted by A.V. Simonenko, seven types of gold plaques were found in the Nogaychik mound: openwork lyre-shaped, openwork rhombic with two curls inside; openwork "towns"; stylized ram's horns inlaid with enamel; disc-shaped; in the form of a leaf with a pendant[177]. Without giving any parallels to individual types of plaques, the author confines himself to noting that these types were widely known among the Sarmatians. As the closest analogy in time and territory, he calls the burial in Sokolova grave (178). Indeed, in the Sokolova grave and, as noted by G. T. Kovpanenko, in burial No. 4 of mound 11 of the Kos-Oba burial ground between the Volga and Ural rivers, dated to the first BC - first century AD, rectangular openwork plaques with two spiral curls inside were found [179]. Openwork "towns" were found in mound 28 of the Vysochino burial ground in the 7th century.

(170) Simonenko. U k soch. P. 73. N 12. Photo 16, 4.

(171) Pfommer. Metalwork... P. 44f. N 40-50.

(172) Simonenko. Uk. op. Photo 25.

(173) Levy. Op. cit. P. 535f. Fig. 11.

(174) Sarianidi V.A. Bactrian Gold. Leningrad, 1983. P. 229. N 27 (burial 1); P. 231. N 7; P. 233. N 20-21; P. 234. N 24-25 (burial 2); P. 236. N 3; P. 238. N 21; P. 240. N 33-34 (burial Z); P. 252 N 3 (burial 5); p. 256. N 17, 21-22 (burial 6).

(175) Masterpieces of ancient Kuban art. N 167-168, 195.

(176) Sarianidi. Op. cit. P. 236. N 3; P. 241. N 46 (burial 3).

(177) Simonenko. Uk. soch. p. 74. N 23; p. 90. Photos 25-26.

(178) Ibid., p. 90; cf. Kovpanenko. Uk. soch. p. 41. Fig. 39.

(179) Kovpanenko. Uk. soch. p. 41. Fig. 39, 14.

page 200

17. Hryvnia from the Nogaychik mound. Detail

Podonye(180); kurgan 20, burial 2 at khut. Novy (181); mound 27 of the Zhutovsky burial ground (late II - early I centuries BC) (182); mound 9 near the Kazanskaya station, excavations in 1901(183); Tanais(184); Sokolovsky mound(185); Khokhlach mound(186); mound 1, cache 1 near the Kazanskaya station, excavations in 1901 (183). Dachi village(187).

Plaques in the form of ram's horns were found in Tillya Tepe, burials 5(188) and 3 (189); Tulkhar burial ground, mound V, 7(190); Sokolova grave(191). Rectangular plaques with a four-petaled rosette find analogies in burial 1 in Tillya Tepe (192). Especially noteworthy are the openwork plaques found in the Nogaychik mound, called "lyre-shaped" by A.V. Simonenko (193), which repeat the ornamental motif of the end of the necklace.

Analysis of antique jewelry from the Sarmatian burial of the Nogaichik mound indicates a significant chronological gap between the time of manufacture of many of them and the date of burial. Such items as bracelets with images of Eros and Psyche, a necklace, earrings, rings, brooches, and a medallion can be fairly confidently dated to the end of the III-II centuries BC. e. At the same time, there is almost no doubt about the Southern Italian origin of the necklace, while the bracelets were more likely to have been found in the Middle East.

Bespalyj E. I. The Barrows with Roman Imports Exacavated by the Expedition of the Azov Regional Museum in 1979-1984, SA. 1985. N 4. p. 170 el. Fig. 7, 5; Bespalyj E. I. The Barrows with Roman Imports Exacavated by the Expedition of the Azov Regional Museum in 1979-1984. the Lower Don Basin. Oxf., 1986 (BAR Intern, ser. 278). P. 77. PI. 64,//.

(181) Ilyukov L. S., Vlaskin M. V. Sarmatians of the Sala and Manych interfluve. Rostov-on-Don. 1992. p. 42 el. Fig. 7,4.

(182) Shilov V. P. Essays on the history of ancient tribes of the Lower Volga region. L., 1975. p. 139 el.; Mordvintseva V. I. Serebryanyye falary iz Zhutovsky kurgan burial ground / / PAV. 1994. N 8. P. 99.

(183) Gushchina I. I., Zasetskaya I. P. "Golden Cemetery" of the Roman era in the Kuban region. SPb., 1994. p. 44. N 50; P. 104. Tables 5,50-52.

(184) Knipovich. Uk. op. p. 65. Fig. 23.

(185) Inv. GE. 2645/3.

(186) Inv. GEC/I.

(187) The Treasures of Nomadic Tribes. No. 120; Bespalyi E. I. Kurgan Sarmatian time near the city of Azov / / SA. 1992. N 1. p. 178 el. Fig. 3, 14.

(188) Sarianidi. Op. cit. P. 255. N 12.

(189) Ibid. P. 239. N30-31.

(190) Mandelstam. Uk. op. Table LX,/.

(191) Kovpanenko. Uk. soch. p. 40. Fig. 39, 13.

(192) Sarianidi. Op. cit. P. 228. N 15.

(193) Simonenko. Uk. soch. p. 74. N 28. Photo 26.

page 201

most likely, they were made in the Hellenized East. It is difficult to say anything about the possible center of making earrings: judging by analogies, they could have been made in Southern Italy, Northern Greece, the Eastern Mediterranean, and even Bactria. The medallion with an agate insert and a round brooch show the greatest similarity to the products from the Late Hellenistic burial grounds of the Kuban region. As for the spring fibulae, the Bosporan origin of the dolphin-shaped fibula suggested by A. V. Simonenko is possible, but not necessary. Given the parallel on the Olvian necklace with a butterfly, I would rather speak in favor of Olvian or Chersonese fibula making. Some items, such as a brooch, have obvious losses and alterations, others, like a necklace, were clearly used for other purposes.

How the jewelry we examined got into the Sarmatian burial of the first century AD in the Crimea is a complex and almost insoluble question. Is it possible to assume that all of them belonged to the distant ancestors of the buried woman and were passed down by inheritance? A.V. Simonenko notes oriental elements in some Sarmatian funerary monuments of the Crimea of the first century AD, including the Nogaichik mound (Grivna-figs. 16-17), which has stylistic parallels in bracelets from the Khokhlach mound(194) and items from the Siberian collection of Peter I (vials and piccis), indicating " migration here from the east of their carriers"(195). Theoretically, it cannot be ruled out that at least some of the jewelry found in the Nogaychik mound made a difficult journey through Central Asia, changing many owners.

THE JEWELRY OF NOGAICHIK TUMULUS M.Yu. Treister

The article gives the first detailed description of jewelry objects found in 1974 by A.A. Shchepinsky in a rich Sarmatian entrance burial of the 1st c. AD in a Bronze era tumulus near Chervonoye village in Nizhnegorsky District of the Crimea (Nogaichik Tumulus N 4). Without any exaggerations some of these objects may be called masterpieces of Hellenistic jewelry.

The analysis of the objects demonstrates an essential chronological gap between the time of their manufacture and the burial. Such objects as bracelets with figures of Eros and Psyche, a necklace, earrings and a medallion may be safely dated back to late 3rd - early 2nd с. ВС. South Italian origin of the necklace is of no doubt, while the bracelets must have been manufactured in the Hellenized East. It is difficult to say anything definite about the place of manufacture of the earrings: analogical objects show that they could have been made either in Southern Italy, Northern Greece, East Mediterranean or even in Bactria. A medallion with agate inlay and a round broach have closest analogies with the pieces from late Hellenistic burial grounds of the Kuban Basin. As to the spring fibulas, Bosporian origin of the dolphin-shaped one (maintained by A.V. Simonenko) is quite possible, though not definite. Taking into account one parallel, an element of an Olbian necklace with a butterfly, the author voter for Olbian or Chersonesian origin of the fibula. Some of the found things were obviously used not according to their purpose.

How the objects in question came to be in the Sarmatian tumulus of the 1st c. AD in the Crimea, is practically an unsolvable problem. Can we suppose that all of them belonged to the buried woman's remote ancestors and were inherited? A.V. Simonenko points out some oriental elements in some Sarmatian burial monuments of the 1st c. AD in the Crimea, including Nogaichik Tumulus; these elements testify to their bearers' migration from the East. It cannot be denied, theoretically speaking, that at least some of the jewelry objects found in Nogaichik Tumulus came here by a complicated route through the Central Asia and changed many owners.

(194) См. Gold der Skythen. Schatze aus der Staatlichen Eremitage St. Petersburg. Neumunster, 1993. N 155: I century BC

(195) Simonenko. Uk. soch. p. 112 el.


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